Cover

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Series Page, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Editor's Foreword

Boyd C. Shafer

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pp. ix-xii

The expansion of Europe since the thirteenth century has had profound influences on peoples throughout the world. Encircling the globe, the expansion changed men's lives and goals and became one of the decisive movements in the history of mankind. ...

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xviii

This book is about the interaction of Spaniards and Portuguese and numerous Indian and African peoples in a "New World" over a span of two centuries. It may help readers to find their way over the varied terrain ahead if I identify some of the conceptual and organizational problems I encountered while planning and writing and explain how I resolved them. ...

Contents

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pp. xix-xvi

Part I. Old World Antecedents

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1. The Matrix of Hispanic Societies: Reconquista and Repoblación

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pp. 3-12

In the year 718 A.D. or thereabouts, a band of Christians led by the knight Pelayo strove against a detachment of Muslims near the caves of Covadonga in the Cantabrian mountains that rim northwestern Hispania. The Muslims were probably a raiding or tribute-gathering party detached from armies that seven years earlier had crossed from Africa, ...

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2. Reconquest Hispania

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pp. 13-40

Hand in hand with reconquest and repopulation went the creation of the territorial units that provided the main source of identity for their inhabitants, as well as the spatial framework for civil and ecclesiastical government, economic production, and the formation of societies. ...

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3. Hispanic Expansion in the Old World

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pp. 41-70

The vigor of Europe during the High Middle Ages not only opened large internal frontiers but generated that dynamic symbiosis of religious zeal, thirst for territorial conquest, and economic enterprise that characterized the early centuries of European overseas expansion. ...

Part II. The Establishment of Hispanic Dominion in America, 1492 to About 1570

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4. The Conditions of Conquest and Colonization: Geography and Peoples

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pp. 73-88

In the darkness of the early morning of October 12, 1492, the lookout on Columbus's ship, the Pinta, sighted a white surface glimmering in the moonlight on the horizon and sang out, "Land! Land!" After several hours of excited suspense, first light revealed an expanse of sand and forest rising from the water that, upon reconnaissance, proved to be an island in what later became known as the Bahamas group. ...

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5. Mundus Novus: Discovery and Conquest

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pp. 89-107

If discovery and conquest be followed step by step and league by league over two seas and two continents, they have the appearance of very disorderly affairs. To contemporaries, however, they had definable meanings, rationales, and methods, and, in retrospect at least, their unfolding displays a pattern and a rhythm. ...

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6. Colonization: The Populators of the Indies

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pp. 108-132

Just as the discovery merged into conquest, conquest blended in to colonization. Rendered by contemporaries as población, colonization retained its medieval significance. It meant the settlement of newly gained territories but for particular purposes and in particular ways. ...

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7. Instruments of Colonization: The Castilian Municipio

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pp. 133-152

The Castilian municipio constituted the main instrument of European colonization by virtue of tradition, necessity, and policy. The Spaniards could conceive of no other way to live together; a republic was a city. Ample precedent existed from the Spanish Reconquest; the valley of the Duero and Old and New Castile had been settled and secured by the founding of towns. ...

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8. Colonization: Efforts to Incorporate the Indians

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pp. 153-181

Queen Isabella desired to incorporate the American indigenes into the Spanish scheme of colonization by converting them, acculturating them, and putting them to work, but she underestimated the magnitude of the task. Indeed, a sharp difference of opinion arose as to whether it could be accomplished at all. ...

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9. The Royal Señorío in the Indies

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pp. 182-207

The Crown of Castile gained the Indies by conquest, but it had to confirm, consolidate, and defend dominion so acquired. It was also obliged to provide justice and good government to its trans-Atlantic subjects, European and Indian, for contemporary political theory still held that this was the first duty of princes. ...

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10. The Fruits of the Land

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pp. 208-230

Población required that the land be made fruitful so that its people prosper and multiply and royal revenues be augmented. In the broadest sense, fructification included the exploitation of everything the land yielded, animal, vegetable, and mineral, or, to put it in modern terms, the development of the economy of the Indies. ...

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11. The Commerce of the Indies

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pp. 231-249

The commerce of the Indies involved the exchange of goods at the local level, between adjacent regions, between widely separated American provinces and kingdoms, and between America and Seville, where it linked to long-established European trade routes. ...

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12. The Conquest of Brazil

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pp. 250-269

In the eighteenth century, a French historian compared Spanish and Portuguese expansion in the New World in the following terms: ...

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13. The Colonization of Brazil to About 1570

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pp. 270-288

Like the Spaniards in their Indies, the Portuguese in Brazil used the municipality as the primary instrument of settlement, and for much the same reasons. They could conceive of no other way to live in polity than in urban centers; in an empty and hostile land they felt the need to cluster together for physical and psychological security; ...

Part III. Hispanic American Empires from About 1570 to About 1700

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14. The Imperial Context: The Hispanic World in the Age of the Habsburg Kings

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pp. 291-304

The reign of Philip II was a transitional period in Hispanic history. The shift began in 1556 when the bequests of the Emperor Charles gave the Habsburg patrimonies in eastern Europe to the Austrian branch of the family, leaving to Philip Spain, the Low Countries, Franche-Compte, the Italian possessions of Aragon, and the Indies. ...

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15. Territorial Changes in the Hispanic New World: Contractions, Expansions, Adjustments

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pp. 305-331

In the last decades of the sixteenth century and throughout the seventeenth, far-reaching territorial changes occurred in the Spanish Indies and in Brazil. The dominions claimed de jure by Spain suffered substantial contractions; the lands occupied de facto by both Spain and Portugal expanded enormously, ...

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16. Post-Conquest Populations: Components, Numbers, Movements, Distribution

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pp. 332-354

The kinds and spacing of data largely determine what can be said about the populations of Spanish America after the Conquest. In the seven decades or so that followed the preparation of López de Velasco's Geografía y descriptión universal de las Indias,1 a number of other "censuses" appeared. ...

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17. Post-Conquest Economies

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pp. 355-390

The territorial expansion that followed the Conquest greatly increased the natural resources available in the Indies, and mining and commerce generated new capital for their exploitation. The number of indigenes, however, continued to diminish, making labor the most critical factor of production. ...

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18. American Societies and American Identities

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pp. 391-422

Throughout the colonial era persons of European descent in the Indies still believed firmly that a properly formed republic should be constituted by a hierarchy of orders, each possessing distinct ascribed and juridical statuses. By the end of the Conquest, however, it had become clear that the traditional ordering—nobility, clergy, and commoners—could not be reproduced in America. ...

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19. Imperial Systems

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pp. 423-451

Royal government in Spanish and Portuguese America expanded steadily after the era of the Conquest both territorially and in terms of its functions and powers. Newly occupied regions had to be provided with governors and magistrates, and in kingdoms and provinces settled earlier increasingly complex societies needed a larger governmental apparatus. ...

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20. Epilogue: European Reactions to Hispanic Expansion in America

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pp. 452-480

The impact of Hispanic expansion on America was direct, massive, and permanent. It involved the rapid conquest of large parts of two continents, the sudden destruction of great Indian civilizations, and the decimation of indigenous populations. In the wake of conquest the Spaniards and Portuguese created new American societies with the unwilling help of the conquered peoples and slaves brought from Africa. ...

Notes

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pp. 481-510

Bibliographical Essay

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pp. 511-564

Index

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pp. 565-585

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About the Author

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Lyle N. McAlister earned his doctorate in history at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1950, and has taught for many years at the University of Florida, where he is is now Distinguished Service Professor of History. ...

Image Plates

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