Lexikon of the Hispanic Baroque
Transatlantic Exchange and Transformation
Publication Year: 2014
Published by: University of Texas Press
Title Page, Series Page, Copyright Page
Lexikon of the Hispanic Baroque stirred in fall 2007 at the first meeting of investigators of the Hispanic Baroque project, a Major Collaborative Research Initiative funded by the Social Sciences...
Introduction: Technologies of Transatlantic Exchange and Transformation
Evonne Levy and Kenneth Mills
When Noah filled the ark at God’s command, he was to have loaded on species, the forms of life required to make a world anew. By the time ships sailing from Spain happened upon the Americas, notions of what would be needed to re-create a world on distant shores had expanded considerably. However much Divine Providence was invoked to make sense of the explorers’ actions, the world-making was now a human idea. Over the course of some two centuries following...
Carlos M. N. Eire
In 1587 Father Juan de Talavera Salazar did something very baroque: he named his own soul the heredera universal (sole heir of his entire estate). Expecting a challenge from relatives who might sue for their share of this loot, Father Juan, a canon of the Cathedral of Sigüenza and administrator of the hospital...
Afterlife (Spanish America)
Ramón Mujica Pinilla
In 1806 José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, one of Spain’s last viceroys of Peru, arrived in Lima. By this time, the secularizing views of the French Enlightenment had triumphed in Spain, inaugurating new public health policies. Indeed, as early as 1789, royal decrees issued from Madrid forbade...
Human society in baroque Spain cannot be understood without investigation of animals which are front and center in masterpieces of the age: the calm, steady canine is perhaps the most unflappable presence in the entourage depicted in Las Meninas. The opening sentence of...
Animal (Spanish America)
Afull kennel—twenty hunting dogs— climbed aboard the fleet that sailed on Christopher Columbus’s second expedition in 1493.1 Hunting, among the earliest exports, wrought changes and was changed in the colonial context, a consequence of its indispensability in conquest, the presence of novel fauna, and exposure to Amerindians’ methods...
With these lines, Cervantes acknowledges that a novel cultural force—the theater—had emerged in seventeenth-century Spain and that its power relied in part upon its ability to transport its audience far and wide on the wings of imagination. What might be less clear is that the figure used to trope the theater—cartography—was no less novel...
Cartography (Spanish America)
Modern maps and mapping transformed the image of the world in close simultaneity with the expansion projects of the Spanish and Portuguese Crowns throughout the planet. From the beginning of the sixteenth century, Iberian cartography became an extra-peninsular practice that allowed both the makers and the viewers to “see” territories, spaces...
Carlos M. N. Eire
Empires and nations are defined as much by their centers as by their boundaries. Centers are definite physical locations, but they are also much more than fixed points on a map: they are points from which authority and order emanate and in which power and the very identity of a dominant culture ostensibly reside. Like monarchs, centers embody...
Center (Spanish America)
Any latter-day talk of the colonial Spanish American “center” cannot help but problematize it: whose center? Where is it located? How does it live? The center, already complex in Spain, becomes in the evolved colonial world of the seventeenth century that quintessential baroque figure, a paradox...
Church: Interior (Spain)
In early modern Spain the life of virtually every Catholic soul was touched by one or more of the local churches, whether it had the status of a cathedral or a collegiate, abbey, parish, or rural church. Because of their representative function as seats of bishops, cathedrals were inevitably the largest...
Church: Interior (Spanish America)
Around 1630 an immigrant to New Spain, a friar-builder and theoretician, reflected on architectural principles and the intricate designs of mudejar ceilings. Fray Andrés de San Miguel (1577–1652), a Discalced Carmelite, filtered his technical astuteness in geometry and artesonado (coffered...
Church: Place (Spain)
The Pórtico Real (Royal Portal) along the southeast face of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is one of the sumptuous components that make up the majestic Plaza de Quintana (Fig. 23). Realized between 1696 and 1700 by one of the leading architects of Galicia, Domingo de Andrade (1639– 1712), the monumental doorway and its lateral walls assume...
Church: Place (Spanish America)
The multiple senses of Sebastián de Covarrubias’s 1611 definition of “church” (iglesia) as a tripartite entity—a congregation, an institution of governance, and a work of architecture1—equipped learned men and women in early modern Spain to see church buildings as places whose symbolism extended beyond...
The phenomenon of planned cities and, by analogy, city planning in the Hispanic Baroque is one largely played out in the Americas, as illustrated in Richard Kagan’s astute summary in this volume. At the turn of the seventeenth century, with the whole of the Iberian peninsula under Spanish control...
City (Spanish America)
Richard L. Kagan
Such was López de Gómara’s opinion in his best-selling history of the Indies. Although he never crossed the Atlantic, his ideas about towns as an instrument for conquest and conversion neatly capture the official policy of the Spanish monarchy in the New World. This policy had its roots in the...
Clergy played multiple, diverse roles during the Baroque period in Spain. The word might have brought many things to mind for an early modern Spaniard. In a world where clergy were so prominent, they must have impinged upon thought often. Early modern Spaniards might be reminded of...
Clergy (Spanish America)
Divine intermediaries, arbiters of justice, fire-and- brimstone preachers, score-settlers, compassionate allies, and greedy careerists—clergy filled a multiplicity of roles and brought to mind a range of opinions in the Spanish Americas, just as Gretchen Starr-Lebeau makes clear they did in Spain. Indeed...
Juan Luis Suárez
Comedia is synonymous with theater or drama in baroque Spain. A comedy is a play in the language of the time; the “author” is the director and owner of a theater company, and the writer of the play is known as the poeta. Therefore, comedia does not relate to the “comic,” although most comedies contain...
Comedy (Spanish America)
In 1683 the comedia Los empeños de una casa (The Trials of a Noble House) by the Mexican poet and playwright Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (1651?–1695) was first performed in an aristocratic home in Mexico City in honor of a newly installed archbishop. In a sainete performed between acts II and...
Sara T. Nalle
Confession and its companion sacrament, communion, lie at the very core of Catholic belief and practice. Without prior confession and absolution, a Catholic may not proceed to communion. Not partaking of the body of Christ and risking death while in a state of mortal sin were and remain the...
Confession (Spanish America)
The status of confession in the seventeenth-century New World is vexed at several levels. First, the practices brought to the New World reflected an institution that was in a process of radical change in Europe, not only in decisions made during the Council of Trent but in accretions throughout the seventeenth...
The convents of baroque Spain, like their counterparts throughout Europe, occupied a significant place in the religious landscape of the Catholic faithful. By the seventeenth century their physical presence decorated the landscape of cities, towns, and villages across the peninsula. As an increasing number...
Convent (Spanish America)
When a woman took the black veil as a professed bride of Christ, the irrevocable nature of her vows signified more than a personal commitment. It was a way of life that was acceptable and desirable for those who followed it and for the society that nurtured the values it implied. In baroque...
Some forms of baroque art bring to mind a dreamscape so conspicuously that the expression “baroque dream” seems to imply the highest degree of unreality, as in Jean Baudrillard’s famous statement that “the Vietnam War never happened, perhaps it was only a dream, a baroque dream of napalm...
Dream (Spanish America)
Beatriz de Alba-Koch
Fraught with anxieties about the deeper meaning of our awakened experience, the literary dreams of the seventeenth century can be seen as quintessential expressions of the Baroque. As literary artefacts that circulated widely throughout the Spanish Empire, they were technologies of culture, part of...
Amanda J. Wunder
The costume recognized round the world as the imperial Spanish style was engraved upon Anne of Austria in a portrait (Fig. 38) printed sometime after her 1570 wedding to King Philip II (r. 1556– 1598). Typically Spanish, the dress is modest in the extreme, covering the queen from chin to toe. The design of the garment...
Dress (Spanish America)
Material splendor—rare and exquisite fabrics, dazzling displays of wealth and sartorial beauty—is a compelling value in Hispanic-American clothing. Theorists of costume argue that clothing is a source of erotic delight and sensory pleasure for wearers and onlookers. In 1906...
Imagines volant (“images fly”) might well be the very nature of engraving, given its ability to cross borders and oceans, as the German term Flugblatt and the English term “flyer” express very well. Engraving is the poor relation of art history studies, which have mainly been interested in its artistic dimension...
Engraving (Spanish America)
Elizabeth B. Davis
War, what is it good for?” chanted Edwin Starr, in a now-famous protest song written during the Vietnam War (1969). The choral response, “absolutely nothing,” surely rang true in the hearts of dispirited soldiers obligated to slaughter innocents in wartime, only to return home and find that they had nearly destroyed their own lives in the process...
Epic (Spanish America)
The main production of Spanish American colonial epic poetry can be framed between the publication of two texts that represent the distinct spaces of the frontier and the city: part one of Alonso de Ercilla’s La Araucana (Madrid, 1569) and...
Felipe Fernández-Armesto’s essay hits the nail right on the head. Three times in particular his aim is especially sharp. First, when he visualizes the two-way trade in foodstuffs between early modern Europe and the Americas as a world-historical shift in biological transfers in which Spain, as the...
Food (Spanish America)
Adisplay of eighteenth-century painted tiles in Barcelona’s ceramics museum shows bewigged gentlemen offering cups of chocolate, on bended knee, to delicately nurtured ladies, beside the fountains of a hortus conclusus (Fig. 52). The work could illustrate a comedy of manners—a chocolate...
Early in the reign of Philip IV (1621–1665), several of his ministers publicly stated that the government of the Spanish monarchy was a “regal government,” government by one, and not a “political government,” government by many. For them, and many others at the time, the Spanish ruler was not a...
Governance (Spanish America)
From the moment a viceroy is received in Peru and takes possession of his office, he begins to be mistaken for royalty.”1 Thus did Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa begin their description of the viceregal figure contained in the confidential report that they wrote for the authorities in Madrid. The two Spanish...
Richard L. Kagan
In his famous treatise The Reason of State (1589), the Italian Jesuit Giovanni Botero catalogued those princes who had made effective use of history as an instrument of state. For Botero, rulers needed to sponsor a “finely-written history...
History (Spanish America)
Kathleen Myers and Pablo García Loaeza
On 30 November 1680 the Marqués de la Laguna, New Spain’s newly appointed viceroy, reached the Plaza de Santo Domingo in Mexico City. As tradition dictated, the Mexico City Council (cabildo) had sponsored the construction of an allegorical triumphal arch to celebrate his arrival. The ephemeral...
Scott K. Taylor
In 1621 Jerónimo de Lanuza, an Aragonese Dominican and the bishop of Barbastro, published a book of homilies to be preached during Lent. The subject of the third homily was loving one’s enemies. This commandment had been forgotten, Lanuza explained, “particularly in Spain where...
Honor (Spanish America)
Honor arrived in Spanish America as an established cultural formation. Medieval Spain had already theorized it (for example in the Siete partidas) as exemplary service to God and king that demonstrated the servant’s virtue and nobility. This understanding allowed the colonization of...
1598. The death of Philip II can be taken as the end of the century of iron. The signs of crisis and discontent that for at least ten years had marked Castile seemed now to surface. Consideration of the problems of the monarchy, which previously had been rather cautious, was now a recurrent...
Inquisition (Spanish America)
On 11 May 1626 the Jesuit father and censor of the Mexican Inquisition, Pedro de Hortigosa, expired in the Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo. He had spent nearly five decades in Mexico City as rector, censor, professor of theology, and student of Nahuatl. It was rumored that one of the inquisitors claimed that he was lost...
In 1545 Fernando Álvarez de Toledo concluded two things about the peoples he called “Indians.” First, they showed the capacity to react against abuse, for they knew how to complain about how they were treated and about Spaniards’ demands on them. And second, they could understand...
Knowledge (Spanish America)
Martin Oliver Carrión
In the organization and deployment of knowledge in Spanish America the Franciscan and Jesuit orders played crucial roles. In order to bring Christian polity to native peoples, these orders developed systematic methods of gathering...
Artisanal guilds were a crucial part of the civic landscape in early modern Spain, though they were less powerful than in other parts of Europe and had less direct political power in Castile than in Catalonia. Madrid probably had over one hundred guilds in the early seventeenth century, and Seville...
Labor (Spanish America)
Kris E. Lane
In December 1595 two young men were ordered by Quito’s appellate court to sign contracts. The two, both legal minors between the ages of fourteen and twenty-five, had probably been arrested for some misdemeanor, perhaps vagrancy or petty theft. They might have been Quito’s answer to...
Manuel Peña Díaz
During the seventeenth century, as Rafael Lapesa has demonstrated, the Spanish language went through an evolutionary process. It evolved phonetically, orthographically, and syntactically, in ways that implied “a considerable obsession...
Language (Spanish America)
The parish church of San Pedro de Andahuaylillas, not far from Cusco, contains a seventeenth-century mural featuring the sacramental formula “I baptize you in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit” in five different languages (Fig. 61). The mural appropriately frames the baptistry...
Jonathan E. Carlyon
Saint Isidore of Seville, in his Origines, offered a simple definition for a library as a place where books were kept: “Bibliotheca est locus, ubi reponuntur libri.”1 In Spain during the early modern period, however, the terms librería and biblioteca...
Library (Spanish America)
Pedro Guibovich Pérez
From the earliest moments of European colonization numerous books traveled from the Iberian peninsula to the Indies. They arrived in the luggage of Crown officials, members of the clergy, and other passengers; in the bundles of traders and...
Living Image (Spain)
Victor I. Stoichita
The painting shows a man in a Capuchin’s habit, his eyes raised to the sky, his hands joined. Nothing more. He would seem to be in an alcove, illuminated from a source somewhere to his left, outside the image. His own body is joined by a second one made of shadow. It is a minimalist scene, inhabited by...
Living Image (Spanish America)
Thomas B. F. Cummins
What child is this who stands painted before us (Fig. 67)? This is Christ the King, but a Christ the King unlike any other in all of Christendom. His reddened cheeks, rounded face, and soft features are set off by cascading golden hair. He seems to be a very animated figure, with one foot raised...
The canonical texts of Renaissance and baroque literature in Spain create the impression that few people would have lived in the burgeoning cities of the time by choice. Descriptions of urban life draw on conventional images and attitudes that...
Love (Spanish America)
Sarah H. Beckjord
The topic of love has always been elusive for anyone rash enough to address it—perhaps even more so in the context of colonial Spanish America, where the conflictive “encounter” of cultures, languages, and bodies from diverse ethnic groups engendered...
Miscegenation, especially between Christians and Muslims or Jews, had long been a Spanish obsession. Laws criminalized it, and aggrieved parties made full use of accusatorial procedures. Miscegenation became one of the malleable borders around which interreligious tensions were sometimes...
Miscegenation (Spanish America)
In 1771 the mulatto slave Felipe Catalino managed to escape his plantation (trapiche) in Miacatlan (Cuernavaca, New Spain) and make his way to the viceregal capital. There he launched legal proceedings against his owner, the Spaniard...
The term “Spanish mission” summons images of a friar pulling a bell-rope, calling indigenous people to catechesis in a rustic structure adorned with a wooden cross. Recent scholarship on the evangelization of Spanish America has challenged the conventional view of a march from paganism to Christianity...
Mission (Spanish America)
If we examine how “mission” was understood in the early modern Spanish world, and particularly in the evangelization settings of the Americas and Philippines archipelago, we find evidence for three clusters of ideas. I term these clusters “Mission Apostolic,” “Mission Translated,” and “Mission’s Afterwards.” To...
Music: Cathedrals (Spain)
Maravall’s concept of baroque power resonating through art and through music is nowhere more strongly observed than in the continuation of the polychoral music style which utilized contrasting sound and timbre, in...
Music: Cathedrals (Spanish America)
A Maravallian thesis: Cathedral music in the Spanish Indies cannot be separated from power. Working within a post-Tridentine symbolic system, aesthetics were conceived as means for religious propaganda and Catholicism remained at the service of the king. The performative power of baroque...
Music: Convents (Spain)
Colleen R. Baade
On 28 April 1620 Doña Jerónima de la Fuente embarked upon a voyage that took her from the Toledo convent where she had lived for the past fifty years, beyond the ports of Seville (where Velázquez painted her portrait) and Cádiz, across the Atlantic to...
Music: Convents (Spanish America)
The convent of La Santísima Trinidad in Puebla was one of the first seven female monasteries founded in Puebla between 1568 and 1604, along with Santa Catalina de Sena, La Purísima Concepción, San Jerónimo, Santa Teresa de Jesús, Santa Inés...
Music: Missions (Spain)
Francisco Luis Rico Callado
Music and song were resources of great importance for the popular missions conducted in early modern Spain. They were employed with a double objective: first, to bring in the faithful with novel ideas that would arouse their interest and curiosity, and, second, to put forward an alternative...
Music: Missions (Spanish America)
Music played a central role in the project to convert the indigenous peoples of Spanish America to Catholic Christianity. Across all of the missions of Spanish America, and at every moment of their existence, musical life flourished...
Louise K. Stein
Opera was a politically charged genre in the Spanish dominions, though the mechanisms of theatrical production developed for the comedia were better suited to spoken and partly sung drama. Musicians enjoyed only low social status, and those...
Opera (Spanish America)
José A. Rodríguez Garrido
In Spanish America, the appearance and initial development of dramas entirely sung are intimately linked to their historical and political contexts. Opera in these settings was, from the outset, not only entertainment but also a vehicle for propaganda and the consolidation of power, perfectly in line with...
Carlos M. N. Eire
Mandan rezar tal y tal oración?” (“Requests for such and such a prayer, anyone?”). So cried out the blind beggar in the picaresque novel Lazarillo de Tormes (1554). “He knew well over a hundred prayers by heart,” explained his...
Prayer (Spanish America)
One evening in the early seventeenth century Don Cristóbal Choque Casa, lord of the Checa people of Huarochirí near Lima, capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru, found himself in a tight spot. A Christian from infancy, he had arranged to meet his lover...
Ramón Mujica Pinilla is certainly right to argue that the apocalyptic or prophetic discourse could appeal both to religious authorities and to marginal figures: if in the first instance prophecy was an instrument of legitimization, in the second...
Prophecy (Spanish America)
Ramón Mujica Pinilla
From the times of the Church Fathers until the nineteenth century, the Holy Scriptures were the most widely read, studied, and commented-upon book in the West. For Christian exegetes, the Bible was the prophetic text par excellence which, in a nutshell, contained the complete history of humankind...
Sir John H. Elliott
The politics of these times presuppose malice and deceit in everything.” This pessimistic observation on the wickedness of the world, so characteristic of the political thinking of the age of the Baroque, was enunciated by the mid-seventeenth- century Spanish diplomat and political theorist Diego...
Rebellion (Spanish America)
R. Douglas Cope
On 10 November 1780 a large crowd in the town of Tungasuca, Peru, witnessed an extraordinary execution: the local indigenous leader ordered the hanging of district magistrate Antonio de Arriaga. This rebel cacique, José Gabriel Condorcanqui...
Religious Drama (Spain)
In 1637 Mateo Rodríguez, a rug weaver who resided in Madrid, received 200 lashes as punishment for “false sainthood.” His Inquisition trial, by accident, left a record of how a community of artisans experienced religious dramas. As historian María José del Río reveals, several witnesses called to report...
Religious Drama (Spanish America)
Louise M. Burkhart
In the early 1600s the Nahua annalist Chimalpahin penned an entry recalling what may have been the earliest Christian-themed theatrical production performed in his language: an enactment of Judgment Day that inspired wonder and astonishment among the Mexica. Chimalpahin placed this...
Since Christianity first arrived on the Iberian peninsula Spaniards have venerated its heroes, the saints. For centuries Spaniards looked to the saints as models of behavior, as sources of inspiration, and, especially, as divine intercessors to whom...
Saint (Spanish America)
William B. Taylor
Catholic Christianity has always been a sensual faith, based on belief in an incarnate God. Christ and divine grace are understood to be actively at work in the world, and the rites that glorify this presence have been “fittingly corporeal.”1 This embodied faith, with its conviction of divine immanence...
Thomas F. Glick
The notion of “baroque” science in Spain inevitably raises the issue of Spanish “decadence” and the social and economic factors that conditioned it. Robert K. Merton supposed that population growth in early modern England spurred economic expansion...
Science (Spanish America)
While the Baroque as a category has been central to the analysis of seventeenth-century art, it has not traditionally been used for the study of scientific knowledge at the time. Quite the opposite: the very idea of the Baroque has traditionally been considered largely at odds with the major narrative in...
Laura R. Bass
In Lope de Vega’s bitingly satirical comedy The Dog in the Manger (El perro del hortelano, 1618), a countess named Diana plays a game of cat and mouse with her commoner secretary, Teodoro, with whom she has fallen in love: unable to marry him because of their difference in rank, the countess cannot...
Self-Fashioning (Spanish America)
On the night of 8 June 1692 thousands of Indians and castas burned the palace of the viceroy in Mexico City. Once the mob began to assemble, rioters throwing rocks at the palace decided to use the petates (mats) from the Indian stalls to set the doors...
Carla Rahn Phillips
To Eugenio de Salazar, who crossed the Atlantic with his family in 1573 to take up a bureaucratic post in Santo Domingo, the ship represented a hellish caricature of life on land. After his first battle with seasickness, he wrote to a friend...
Ship (Spanish America)
That great monument of Spanish baroque poetry, Luis de Góngora’s Soledades (1627), opens with a shipwreck: the “stranger” or “pilgrim” who is the poem’s protagonist, floating on wreckage, reaches an unknown shore. There he encounters an old...
Sin (Spain)--Allyson Poska
According to the Catholic Church, sin was an offense against God, and that offense could take many forms. Although most people knew the seriousness of breaking the Ten Commandments and engaging in the Seven Deadly Sins...
Sin (Spanish America)
Stuart B. Schwartz
In a sense, there had been no sin in the Indies before 1492. Native peoples of the Americas often had a strong sense of moral order and proper behavior, but Christian concepts of original sin, and personal culpability and guilt for thoughts and...
Amantle of cold air covered Valencia on this October night in 1623. After a brutal day’s work, you were drifting into sleep tucked comfortably in your bed. Today’s bricklaying for Joan Carretero’s new façade had not gone as planned: though as master builder you were able to rely on young...
Sodomy (Spanish America)
Can one imagine the reactions of the audience in 1690 Puebla to the spectacle of Domingo? Does our understanding of this performance change when we realize that it comes from an indigenous annal, written in Nahuatl, and that the annal as a whole suggests that the audience was made up primarily...
If one were searching for an episode to capture the complexities of Spanish attitudes toward the supernatural in baroque Spain, the symposium on royal thaumaturgy that took place in Madrid in September of 1654 would fit the bill nicely. Construing...
Supernatural (Spanish America)
Andrew Keitt makes the bold suggestion that changes in the “supernatural” cannot be explained merely as the product of culturally determined tastes. Instead, he argues that they are the product of an evolutionary stage in the history...
Page Count: 366
Illustrations: 91 photos
Publication Year: 2014
Series Title: Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long Series in Latin American and Latino Art and Culture
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