Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xiv

This work has been a long time in the making. It resulted from years of research and certain of my obsessions. In the beginning, grave illness was an unexpected complication. Thanks to many people and many academic, research, and medical institutions, I was able to overcome initial obstacles...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-6

The 1860s were difficult times for the Western Hemisphere’s two largest countries, the United States of America and the Brazilian Empire. During that decade, both nations were involved in long, costly struggles that challenged their national unity and their internal political cohesion. In...

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1. Military Traditions Confront Mass Mobilization in the United States and Brazil

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pp. 7-24

In Brazil and the United States, popular distrust of a professional military took root and grew from the late colonial period to the 1860s. Both societies developed suspicion, resentment, or opposition to national armies and favored local military units commanded by local officers. British North...

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2. The Crisis of the American Recruitment System: Union Army Recruitment, April 1861–July 1863

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pp. 25-59

On November 10, 1862, a hostile crowd surrounded William A. Pors, a longtime resident of the town of Port Washington in Ozaukee County, Wisconsin, as he entered the courthouse. Weeks before, Pors, a local attorney, had been appointed the district draft commissioner by the Wisconsin governor...

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3. From Inertia to Insurgence: The Crisis in Brazilian Recruitment, 1865–1868

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pp. 60-91

In the early morning hours of August 22, 1865, a gang of about thirty armed men assaulted the jail in Ingá, a village in the Northeastern cotton province of Paraíba. The gang released all fifteen prisoners. Some of these men were undoubtedly criminals, but others had been conscripted into...

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4. Forged in Inequality: The Recruitment of Black Soldiers in the United States, September 1862–April 1865

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pp. 92-127

On February 6, 1864, Senator Orville Hickman Browning of Illinois, a long-time acquaintance of Abraham Lincoln, visited the White House. In the course of conversation, as was customary among political allies, Browning asked the president if he could help a friend in trouble. The friend, Mrs. Fitz...

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5. Manumitting and Enlisting the Slaves in Brazil, December 1866–August 1868

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pp. 128-162

On November 14, 1867, José Jobim, a respected doctor and imperial political councilor wrote to his friend, Thomas Gomes, describing the misadventures of a recently acquired domestic slave, a young man named Carlos. Jobim had gone to a traditional slave market to buy a replacement...

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Conclusion: Processes, Effects, Distortions

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pp. 163-176

As the preceding chapters have demonstrated, both Brazil and the United States found themselves in unprecedented but similar situations in response to the wars of the 1860s. The critical need for troops and materials forced each nation-state to centralize to enforce military recruitment. The...

Notes

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pp. 177-215

Bibliography

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pp. 216-236

Index

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pp. 237-254