Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

The editors are grateful to the Manship family, who generously funded a research professorship for the first edition of this book. The second edition benefited from research funding from the Professorship in Media & Public Affairs ...

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Introduction

David D. Perlmutter, Robert Mann

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pp. 1-10

During the Iowa caucuses of the 2008 presidential campaign, then-Senator Barack Obama of Illinois defeated his rivals and immediately became the front-runner for the Democratic nomination. His victory in the Hawkeye State and his subsequent march to the White House also unveiled a new era of political campaigns. ...

Understanding the Industry

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1. Consultants and Candidates

John Franzén

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pp. 13-22

Political consultants are an unruly lot. We view ourselves as professionals and maintain a professional association, yet literally anyone can adopt the title of consultant and start soliciting clients. Although several universities have programs now in campaign strategy and management, most consultants have no academic training in the profession itself, ...

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2. A Brief History of Political Advertising on Television

Darrell M. West

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pp. 23-32

Television advertising in presidential campaigns got its start in 1952. Simplistic by contemporary standards, early political spots often took the form of footage from press conferences or testimonials from prominent citizens. Many of Eisenhower’s “I Like Ike” and his “Talks to America” commercials were reels in which the candidate looked straight into the camera ...

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3. Political Communication Center

Lynda Lee Kaid

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pp. 33-36

The Political Communication Center (PCC) is an interdisciplinary unit at the University of Oklahoma that coordinates academic degree programs in political communication, facilitates research projects, sponsors conferences, oversees archival collections, and provides service to the academic and professional communities interested in political communication, political advertising, and political debates. ...

Laws and Regulations

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4. Political Advertising and the First Amendment

Louis A. Day

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pp. 39-50

During the 2007 Louisiana gubernatorial campaign, the state’s Democratic Party aired a television spot accusing Republican candidate Bobby Jindal, a Catholic, of calling Protestants “scandalous, depraved, selfish, and heretical.” The ad precipitated a political firestorm and calls from the GOP to take the ad off the air. ...

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5. Electronic Media and Congressional Politics

Ron Garay

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pp. 51-63

In late 2008, according to the Nielsen Company, there were approximately 290 million television viewers occupying some 114.5 million U.S. households with at least one television. Since citizens have access to radio in the home, in the automobile, and in the workplace, the radio medium saturates nearly the entire U.S. population. ...

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6. The States and Campaign Finance Laws

David Schultz

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pp. 64-74

During the 2002 and 2004 election cycles, the national association of the 21st Century Democrats made numerous contributions to its Minnesota affiliate in order to help the latter influence state legislative elections. These contributions, totaling nearly $300,000, were instrumental in the Minnesota Democratic Farmer Labor (DFL) Party picking up numerous legislative seats, ...

Techniques and Types

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7. Television Ads and Video

Dane Strother

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pp. 77-88

I’m to write about TV commercials. But what is TV? We have Apple video boxes that allow us to buy what we want when we want it, Web TV shows, pay per view, podcasts, and s0on wireless spots available on our cell phones. It’s impossible to write about TV commercials in 2011 without a discussion of the many platforms available for political commercials. ...

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8. Newspaper Advertising

Thomas N. Edmonds, John E. Kimball

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pp. 89-96

While the much-maligned daily newspaper industry is painted as a dying breed, when it comes to political and issue advertising, nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, “Newspapers are back.” That’s what political consultant Cathy Allen told the Wall Street Journal in late July 2007. ...

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9. Radio Advertising

Bill Fletcher

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pp. 97-105

Television is the dominant medium in America, and that includes politics at virtually every level. But in spite of the power, growth, and reach of television, radio remains a dynamic medium for modern politics. It is on the radio where democracy and commerce collide. ...

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10. Outdoor Advertising

Sean Reilly

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pp. 106-111

In his 1983 rematch with incumbent Louisiana Republican governor Dave Treen, former governor Edwin Edwards set the tone early. Though Treen was personally popular and respected, his administration was laboring under a sputtering economy. ...

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11. Earned Media

Bud Jackson

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pp. 112-125

Back in the old days, news deadlines for airing or printing stories were, for the most part, once per day. Newspapers came out daily and network television news aired once per night, while local television news aired around dinnertime and just before bedtime, with morning news reporting what had happened the day before. ...

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12. Speechwriting

Trevor Parry-Giles

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pp. 126-135

Before polling, before direct mail and focus groups, before 30-second spots and voter targeting, politicians were giving speeches and hiring experts to write them. The first known speechwriters were Corax and Tisias, two resourceful fifth-century B.C. Athenians who recognized the opportunities before them as the art of oratory was taking hold in ancient Greece. ...

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13. Modern Campaign Polling

Robert K. Goidel

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pp. 136-144

Public-opinion polls are a valued tool in the arsenal of any serious political candidate. They help candidates set their campaign agendas, craft messages, and otherwise communicate with the public. One can argue that public-opinion polls improve the electoral process by giving candidates a better understanding of the public they hope to serve ...

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14. Focus Groups

Malcolm P. Ehrhardt

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pp. 145-153

During the first decade of the twenty-first century, focus groups during major candidate debates became a form of instant gratification for the media in presidential campaigns. Nationally prominent researchers gathered demographically balanced groups of undecided voters and outfitted them with electronic devices that monitored their responses to candidates during the debates, ...

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15. Local Television News and Political Campaigns

David Kurpius

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pp. 154-163

Debate over the role of local television coverage in politics is nothing new. Political campaigns and government communications staff have long viewed local television news as a good way to disseminate messages broadly. People who make a living pushing political messages know they can manipulate the medium. ...

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16. Get Out the Vote

Gerry Tyson

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pp. 164-173

Discussions about maximizing voter turnout typically revolve around technique: targeting and methodology. While these topics are critical to effective get-out-the-vote (GOTV) operations, more attention needs to be given to strategic overview in developing and executing programs that will result in maximizing the participation of a campaign’s supporters. ...

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17. Independent Content

Paul Harang

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pp. 174-181

Barack Obama’s words, spoken and sung simultaneously by a variety of celebrities, soar over a simple acoustic guitar arrangement. Will.i.am, recording artist and member of The Black Eyed Peas, created the video “Yes We Can” without the support, direction, or approval of the Obama campaign. ...

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18. Public Journalism

David Kurpius

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pp. 182-189

In the summer 2009, the health-care debate topped the news almost daily as Congress and President Barack Obama worked toward a solution. Town-hall meetings across the country offered citizens the opportunity to talk about the issues and engage their congressional representatives. ...

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19. Online Political Advertising

Monica Ancu

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pp. 190-196

Political advertising is undoubtedly the main communication tool between candidates and voters during political campaigns. Dwight Eisenhower pioneered the use of television advertising in his 1952 campaign for the U.S. presidency on the advice of his campaign strategist, Rosser Reeves, who noticed that ads are “brief, to the point, and difficult to avoid” ...

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20. Evaluating Campaign Websites

Michael Xenos

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pp. 197-202

Presidential campaigns have featured cutting-edge and highly visible websites since the 1990s. Further down the ballot, there has been more variation, but it is likely that we have reached a saturation point in this area of campaigning. For a variety of reasons, we may never see a world in which every candidate for every office creates a campaign website. ...

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21. Online Social Networks and Political Campaigns

Monica Ancu

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pp. 203-210

“Today’s audience isn’t listening at all—it’s participating,” writes William Gibson, the science-fiction writer who coined the term “cyberspace.” Nowhere on the Internet is this observation more accurate than on social-networking websites, where the dividing line between message senders and receivers has been blurred into a collective, free-for-all, continuous, and instant dialogue. ...

Constituencies

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22. Older Voters

Robert H. Binstock

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pp. 213-226

During election campaigns, especially presidential elections, political consultants and journalists focus on older persons as an important voter demographic. During the 2008 election campaign, for instance, the prominent political consultant Mark Penn wrote, “America as a nation has never been older and the power of the senior vote has never been greater.” ...

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23. The Religious Conservative Voter

Lisa K. Lundy

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pp. 227-235

Religious conservatives, as described by Charles H. Cunningham in the first edition of this guide, are “people of faith who have a personal relationship with God and who turn to him to help make decisions in their daily lives.” While religious conservatives vary from Orthodox Jews to Roman Catholics, the largest and most visible group in recent American politics has been evangelical Christians. ...

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24. Young Voters

Katherine Knobloch

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pp. 236-247

For decades, scholars and politicos have argued over the efficacy of reaching out to young voters. While campaigns have attempted to lure young people to the polls with gimmicky slogans and flashy media operations, some analysts have written off young Americans as a lost cause, citing decades of low turnout rates. ...

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25. The Latino (Hispanic) Voter

Melissa Michelson

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pp. 248-256

Latinos account for more than half (50.5 percent) of the population growth in the United States since 2000, a figure driven more by natural increase (births minus deaths) than by immigration. The community is clustered in the Southwest and Northeast, plus Florida, but considerable percentage increases are to be found throughout the country and particularly in the South, ...

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26. Race and Southern Politics

Wayne Parent

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pp. 257-264

While the interplay between race and southern politics remains thick and complicated, three simplifying themes have emerged by the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century. First, white racial resentment remains relevant, even as its influence is waning. ...

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27. Informing Insiders

Charlie Cook

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pp. 265-272

For almost as long as there have been politics and printing presses, there have been publications that cover politics and government. Over time, a demand was created, and filled, by highly specialized publications that provided in-depth coverage of government, politics, and elections, ...

Contributors

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pp. 273-278

Index

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pp. 279-291