Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Quote

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Contents

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Introduction

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pp. 1-40

On the night of July 18, 1964, three weeks after Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act, New York City police lieutenant Thomas Gilligan shot and killed James Powell, a fifteen-year-old black student, outside his high school in upper Manhattan. An altercation had ensued when Patrick Lynch, the...

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1. Policing Racial Boundaries and Riots in New York (1920–1993)

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pp. 41-87

The Great Migration, which began in 1916, brought half a million blacks north. The boll weevil had ruined the southern cotton harvest, wiped out white landowners, dried up credit, and forced black sharecroppers and tenant farmers into debt. The simultaneous decline of King Cotton and the...

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2. Policing Racial Boundaries and Riots in Paris (1920–2002)

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pp. 88-134

Until 2005 most French scholars insisted that racism was a distinctly American phenomenon. French workers, Michelle Lamont argued, ‘‘define the poor and black as ‘part of us,’ using the language of class solidarity.’’1 Although they reject North Africans, it is because they believe that Muslims...

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3. Boundary Activation without Riots: New York (1993–2010)

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pp. 135-179

Rudolph Giuliani opened his 1993 mayoral campaign (having lost the previous race, in 1989, to now-mayor David Dinkins) by addressing a mob of some ten thousand ‘‘raucous beer-drinking, overwhelmingly white police officers who had just finished a march on City Hall to protest a Dinkins-backed...

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4. Boundary Activation and Riots in Paris (2002–2010)

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pp. 180-232

On October 27, 2005, in Clichy-sous-Bois, Siyakha Traore´, a twenty-threeyear- old man of Mauritanian descent, was on his way to the grocer to break his Ramadan fast when he saw Muhittin Altun, a friend of his younger brother, running wildly and howling, ‘‘Bouna, Zyad, Bouna, Zyad.’’ Smoke...

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Conclusion

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pp. 233-256

In 2002 Michael Bloomberg was elected mayor as the Republican Party candidate, although he later declared himself an independent. Bloomberg made Ray Kelly his police commissioner (the same position Kelly had occupied under David Dinkins). The New York Times christened Bloomberg...

Notes

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pp. 257-294

Index

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pp. 295-300

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 300-304

All those who shared their stories, read drafts of this manuscript, or provided me a home or home base in a foreign country are owed a debt of gratitude. My research began in New York (although I had no idea, at the time, of the direction it would take) when I was an Aaron Diamond Fellow...