Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-xi

Translators

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p. xiii

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Preface

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p. xv

Volume 6 of the Collected Works of Marx and Engels covers the period between the autumn of 1845 and March 1848, when the bourgeois-democratic revolutions in Europe were maturing, and the contents reflect the manifold theoretical studies and practical activities of Marx and Engels undertaken on the eve of the revolutions of 1848-49. In these activities Marx and Engels were mainly concerned with completing their working out of the general theoretical foundations of Marxism...

KARL MARX and FREDERICK ENGELS WORKS Autumn 1845-March 1848

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THE FESTIVAL OF NATIONS IN LONDON

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pp. 3-14

"What do the nations matter to us? What does the French Republic matter to us? Did we not long ago grasp the notion of nations and did we not determine the place of each of them; did we not assign to the Germans the sphere of theory, to the French that of politics, and to the English that of civil society? And the more so the French Republic! What is there to celebrate about a stage of development which has long been superseded, which has abolished itself as a result of its...

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THE STATE OF GERMANY

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pp. 15-33

Dear Sir,— In compliance with your wish, I commence by this letter a series of articles on the present state of my native country. In order to make my opinions on the subject plainly understood, and to justify the same as being well founded, I shall have to trace with a few words the history of Germany from the event which shook modern society to its very foundation — I mean to say, from the French Revolution. Old Germany was at that...

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STATEMENT

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pp. 34-34

According to the Rheinischer Beobachter of January 18, issue No. 18, the Trier'sche Zeitung contains an announcement by the Editorial Board according to which, among a number of writers, Marx also is named as a contributor to this newspaper. In order to prevent any confusion I state that...

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[CIRCULAR AGAINST KRIEGE]

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pp. 35-51

At a meeting attended by the undermentioned Communists: Engels, Gigot, Heilberg, Marx, Seiler, Weitling, von Westphalen and Wolff, the following resolutions concerning the New York Germanlanguage journal "Der Volks-Tribun" edited by Hermann Kriege were passed unanimously — with the single exception of Weitling "who voted against....

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VIOLATION OF THE PRUSSIAN CONSTITUTION

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pp. 52-53

There exists a law in Prussia, dated 17th of January3 1820, forbidding the King to contract any State Debts without the sanction of the States-General, an assembly which it is very well known, does not yet exist in Prussia.42 This law is the only guarantee the Prussians have for ever getting the constitution which, since 1815, has been promised to them. The fact of the existence of such a law not being generally known out...

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LETTER FROM THE BRUSSELS COMMUNIST CORRESPONDENCE COMMITTEE TO G. A. KÖTTGEN

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pp. 54-56

We hasten to answer your call, communicated to us a few days ago, as follows: We are in full agreement with your view that the German Communists must emerge from the isolation in which they have hitherto existed and establish durable mutual contacts with one another; similarly, that associations for the purpose of reading and discussion are necessary. For Communists must first of all clear things up among...

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THE PRUSSIAN BANK QUESTION

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pp. 57-57

You will probably have already heard that the King of Prussia's plan of making money out of paper has been found impracticable. Two of the administrators of the State Debts refused to sign the new banknotes, as they considered them to be a new public debt, therefore subject to the guarantee of the States-General. Frederick William IV,...

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ADDRESS OF THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC COMMUNISTS OF BRUSSELS TO MR. FEARGUS O'CONNOR

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pp. 58-60

Sir.— We embrace the occasion of your splendid success at the Nottingham election to congratulate you, and through you the English Chartists, on this signal victory. We consider the defeat of a Free-Trade minister a at the show of hands by an enormous Chartist majority, and at the very time, too, when Free-Trade principles are triumphant in the Legislature,^ we consider this, Sir, as a sign that the working classes....

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[GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION IN FRANCE]

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pp. 61-63

The Chambers are now assembled. The Chamber of Peers have, as usual, nothing to do, now that they have disposed of the case of Joseph Henry, the new-fashioned regicide. The Chamber of Deputies are busily engaged in verifying the returns of members, and they profit by this opportunity to show the spirit which animates them. Never, since the revolution of 1830, has there been displayed...

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THE PRUSSIAN CONSTITUTION

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pp. 64-71

At last this long-expected piece of workmanship has made its appearance!51 At last — if we believe the Times, Globe, some French and some German papers — Prussia has passed over to the ranks of constitutional countries. The Northern Star, however, has already sufficiently proved that this so-called Constitution is nothing but a trap offered to the Prussian people to cheat them of the rights promised by the late....

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[DECLARATION AGAINST KARL GRÜN]

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pp. 72-74

Under the date-line Berlin, March 20, the Trier'sche Zeitung prints an article on my pamphlet now in printing, Contradictions dans le système des contradictions économiques de M. Proudhon ou les misères de la philosophie.a The Berlin correspondent15 makes me out to be the author of a report printed in the Rhein- u. Mosel-Zeitung and elsewhere concerning this pamphlet, Proudhon's book0 and the activities of its translator...

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[THE CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION IN GERMANY]

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pp. 75-91

German socialist literature grows worse from month to month. It increasingly confines itself to the broad effusions of those true socialists whose whole wisdom amounts to an amalgam of German philosophy and German-philistine sentimentality with a few stunted communist slogans. It exhibits a peacefulness which enables it even under the censorship to state its most heartfelt opinions. Even the German police find little in it to take exception to—proof enough that it belongs not to...

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PROTECTIVE TARIFFS OR FREE TRADE SYSTEM

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pp. 92-95

From the instant that lack of money and credit forced the King of Prussia to issue the Letters Patent of February 3,65 no reasonable person could doubt any longer that the absolute monarchy in Germany and the "Christian-Germanic" management as it has hitherto existed, also known under the name of "paternal government", had, in spite of all bristling resistance and sabre-rattling speeches from the throne, abdicated for ever. The day had now dawned from which...

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DRAFT OF A COMMUNIST CONFESSION OF FAITH

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pp. 96-104

Question 1: Are you a Communist? Answer: Yes. Question 2: What is the aim of the Communists? Answer: To organise society in such a way that every member of it can develop and use all his capabilities and powers in complete freedom and without thereby infringing the basic conditions of this society. Question 3: How do you wish to achieve this aim? Answer: By the elimination...

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THE POVERTY OF PHILOSOPHY

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pp. 105-212

M. Proudhon has the misfortune of being peculiarly misunderstood in Europe. In France, he has the right to be a bad economist, because he is reputed to be a good German philosopher. In Germany, he has the right to be a bad philosopher, because he is reputed to be one of the ablest of French economists. Being both a German and an economist at the same time, we desire to protest against this double...

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THE DECLINE AND APPROACHING FALL OF GUIZOT.—POSITION OF THE FRENCH BOURGEOISIE

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pp. 213-219

The English stage had better give over playing The School for Scandala for, indeed, the greatest school of this sort has been set up in Paris, in the Chamber of Deputies. The amount of scandalous matter collected and brought forward there during the last four or five weeks, is really unprecedented in the annals of parliamentary discussion. You recollect the inscription Mr. Duncombe once proposed for your...

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THE COMMUNISM OF THE RHEINISCHER BEOBACHTER

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pp. 220-234

Brussels, September 5.—In issue No. 70 of this newspaper an article from the Rh(einischer] Beobachter is introduced with the words: "In issue No. 2t)6 the Rheinischer] Beobachter] preaches communism as follows." Whether or not this comment is intended ironically, Communists must protest against the idea that the Rheinischer Beobachter could preach "communism", and especially against the idea that the article communicated in issue No. 70 of the D[eutsche]-B[russeler]-Z[eitung] is communist. If a certain....

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GERMAN SOCIALISM IN VERSE AND PROSE

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pp. 235-273

To prevent misunderstandings, the poet addresses God as "LORD" and the house of Rothschild as Lord. Right at the beginning he records his petty-bourgeois illusion that the "rule of gold" obeys Rothschild's "whims"; an illusion which gives rise to a whole series of fancies about the power of the house of Rothschild. It is not the destruction of Rothschild's real power, of the social conditions on...

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THE ECONOMIC CONGRESS

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pp. 274-278

It is well known that here there are several lawyers, officials, doctors, rentiers, merchants, etc., who, under pretence of an Association pour le libre échange (à l'instar de Paris),3give one another instruction in the elements of political economy. For the last three days of the past week these gentlemen were swimming in bliss. They held their great congress of the greatest economists of all countries, they enjoyed...

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THE PROTECTIONISTS, THE FREE TRADERS AND THE WORKING CLASS

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pp. 279-281

The protectionists have never protected small industry, handicraft proper. Have Dr. List and his school in Germany by any chance demanded protective tariffs for the small linen industry, for hand loom-weaving, for handicraft production? No, when they demanded protective tariffs they did so only in order to oust handicraft production with machines and patriarchal industry with modern industry. In a word, they wish to extend the dominion of the bourgeoisie, and...

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THE FREE TRADE CONGRESS AT BRUSSELS

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pp. 282-290

On the 16th, 17th, and 18th of September, there was held here (Brussels) a congress of political economists, manufacturers, tradesmen, etc., to discuss the question of Free Trade. There were present about 150 members of all nations. There assisted, on the part of the English Free Traders, Dr. Bowring, M. P., Col. Thompson, M. P., Mr. Ewart, M. P., Mr. Brown, M. P., James Wilson, Esq., editor of the Economist, etc.; from France had arrived M. Wolowski, professor of jurisprudence; M. Blanqui...

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THE COMMUNISTS AND KARL HEINZEN

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pp. 291-306

Brussels, September 26. Today's number of the D[eutsche]- Br[iisseler]-Z[ei]t[un]g contains an article by Heinzen3 in which under the pretext of defending himself against a trivial accusation by the editors, he embarks on a long polemic against the Communists. The editors advise both sides to drop the polemic. In that case however they ought only to reproduce that part of Heinzen's article in which Heinzen really defends himself against the accusation of having attacked the Communists...

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[THE COMMERCIAL CRISIS IN ENGLAND.—THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT.—IRELAND]

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pp. 307-309

The commercial crisis to which England finds itself exposed at the moment is, indeed, more severe than any of the preceding crises. Neither in 1837 nor in 1842 was the depression as universal as at the present time. All the branches of England's vast industry have been paralysed at the peak of its development; everywhere there is stagnation, everywhere one sees nothing but workers thrown out on the streets. It goes without...

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THE MASTERS AND THE WORKERS IN ENGLAND

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pp. 310-311

Gentlemen, I have just read in your October issue an article entitled: Les maîtres et les- ouvriers en Angleterre<; this article mentions a meeting reported by la Presse of so-called delegates of workers employed in the Lancashire cotton industry, a meeting which took place on August 29 last in Manchester. The resolutions passed at this meeting were such as to prove to la Presse that there is perfect harmony between capital and labour in England. You did quite well, gentlemen...

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MORALISING CRITICISM AND CRITICAL MORALITY

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pp. 312-340

Shortly before and during the period of the Reformation there developed amongst the Germans a type of literature whose very name is striking—grobian literature. In our own day we are approaching an era of revolution analogous to that of the sixteenth century. Small wonder that among the Germans grobian literature is emerging once more. Interest in historical development easily overcomes the aesthetic revulsion which this kind of writing provokes even...

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PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNISM

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pp. 341-357

Question 1: What is communism? Answer: Communism is the doctrine of the conditions for the emancipation of the proletariat. Question 2: What is the proletariat? Answer: The proletariat is that class of society which procures its means of livelihood entirely and solely from the sale of its labour156 and not from the profit derived from any capital; whose weal and woe, whose life and...

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[THE AGRARIAN PROGRAMME OF THE CHARTISTS]

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pp. 358-360

About two years ago the Chartist workers founded an association with the object of buying land and dividing it among its members into small holdings.162 It was hoped in this way to diminish the excessive competition between factory workers themselves, by keeping from the labour market some of these workers to form a quite new and essentially democratic class of small peasants. This project, whose author....

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[THE CHARTIST BANQUET IN CONNECTION WITH THE ELECTIONS OF 1847]

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pp. 361-363

In a letter of the day before yesterday I was concerned to defend the Chartists and their leader Feargus O'Connor against the attacks of the radical bourgeois press.3 Today, to my great satisfaction, I can tell you something which confirms what I suggested about the spirit of the two parties. You will judge for yourselves to whom French democracy ought to give its sympathy: to the Chartists, sincere democrats without ulterior motives, or to the radical bourgeois who so carefully avoid...

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THE MANIFESTO OF M. DE LAMARTINE

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pp. 364-366

You recently published this curious piece of workmanship.169 It consists of two very distinct parts: political measures and social measures. Now the political measures are, one and all, taken from the Constitution of 1791,170 with almost no alteration; that is, they are the return to the demands of the middle classes in the beginning of the revolution. At that time the whole of the middle classes, including even the smaller tradesmen, were invested with political power, while at present the participation...

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THE CIVIL WAR IN SWITZERLAND

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pp. 367-374

At last the ceaseless bombast about the "cradle of freedom", about the "grandsons of William Tell and Winkelried", about the heroic victors of Sempach and Murten178 is being brought to an end. At last it has been revealed that the cradle of freedom is nothing but the centre of barbarism and the nursery of Jesuits, that the grandsons of Tell and Winkelried can only be brought to reason by cannon-balls, and...

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THE REFORM MOVEMENT IN FRANCE

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pp. 375-382

When, during the last session of the Legislative Chambers, M. E. de Girardin had brought to light those numerous and scandalous facts of corruption which he thought would overthrow the government; when, after all, the government had maintained themselves against the storm; when the celebrated Two Hundred and Twenty-Five3 declared themselves "satisfied" as to the innocence of the ministry, all seemed to be over, and the Parliamentary Opposition, towards...

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[THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT]1

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pp. 383-384

The opening of the recently elected Parliament that counts among its members distinguished representatives of the People's Party186 could not but produce extraordinary excitement in the ranks of democracy. Everywhere the local Chartist associations are being reorganised. The number of meetings increases and the most diverse ways and means of taking action are being proposed and discussed. The Executive of the...

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SPLIT IN THE CAMP.—THE RÉFORME AND THE NATIONAL.—MARCH OF DEMOCRACY

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pp. 385-387

Since my last3 the banquets of Lille, Avesnes, and Valenciennes, have been held. Avesnes was merely constitutional; Valenciennes half-and-half; Lille a decided triumph of democracy over middleclass intrigue. Here are, shortly, the facts concerning this most important meeting:— Besides the liberals and the party of the National the democrats of the Réforme had been invited, and Messrs Ledru-Rollin and Flocon, editor of the last-named paper, had accepted the invitation. M. Odilon Barrot, the virtuous middle-class thunderer, was also invited. Every thing was...

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[ON POLAND]

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pp. 388-390

The unification and brotherhood of nations is a phrase on the lips of all parties today, especially those of bourgeois free traders. A certain kind of brotherhood does of course exist among the bourgeois classes of all nations. It is the brotherhood of the oppressors against the oppressed, of the exploiters against the exploited. Just as, despite the competition and conflicts existing between the members of the bourgeoisie, the bourgeois class of one country is united by...

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[THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE POLISH REVOLUTIONOF 1830]

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pp. 391-392

Dear Citizen! I arrived yesterday evening just in time to attend the public meeting called to celebrate the anniversary of the Polish revolution of 1830. I have been present at many similar celebrations but I have never seen such general enthusiasm, such perfect and cordial agreement between men of all nations. The chairmanship was given to Mr. Arnott, an English workman. The first speech was by Mr. Ernest Jones, editor of The Northern Star, who, while speaking...

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REFORM BANQUET AT LILLE.—SPEECH OF M. LEDRU-ROLLIN

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pp. 393-396

In response to the toast:—"To the labourers,—to their imprescriptible rights,—to their sacred interests, hitherto unknown."2 "Citizens,—Yes, to the labourers! to their imprescriptible rights,—to their sacred interests, hitherto unknown. To the unalienable rights of man, proclaimed in principle, by two glorious revolutions ; but artfully eluded in their application, and successfully re-wrested from the people, and which are now only a glorious, yet bitter remembrance! Political...

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REFORM MOVEMENT IN FRANCE.—BANQUET OF DIJON

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pp. 397-401

This meeting of the Democracy of the Department of the Côte d'Or, was incontestably the most splendid one of the whole series of Reform Banquets. 1,300 sat down to dinner. There were present deputations from almost all the neighbouring towns, and even a Swiss deputation, composed of citizens from Neufchâtel, Geneva and Lucerne. The character of the meeting is very clearly marked out by the names of the...

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REMARKS ON THE ARTICLE BY M. ADOLPHE BARTELS

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pp. 402-403

M. Adolphe Bartels claims that public life is finished for him. Indeed, he has withdrawn into private life and does not mean to leave it; he limits himself, each time some public event occurs, to hurling protests and proclaiming loudly that he believes he is his own master, that the movement has been made without him, M. Bartels, and in spite of him, M. Bartels, and that he has the right to refuse it his supreme sanction. It will be agreed that this is just as much a way of participating in public...

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LAMARTINE AND COMMUNISM

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pp. 404-405

Following the Lille banquet a controversy developed between the Réforme and the National, which has now led to a decisive split between the two papers. The facts are as follows: From the inception of the reform banquets the National has attached itself even more openly than before to the dynastic opposition.214 At the Lille banquet M. Degeorge of the National withdrew together with Odilon Barrot. The National expressed its opinion of the Lille...

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THE RÉFORME AND THE NATIONAL

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pp. 406-408

The Northern Star in its report of the Dijon banquet criticises the speech of Louis Blanc in remarks with which we completely concur. The union of the democrats of different nations does not exclude mutual criticism. It is impossible without such criticism. Without criticism there is no understanding and consequently no union. We reproduce the remarks of The Northern Star in order that we too, for our part, may protest...

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LOUIS BLANCS SPEECH AT THE DIJON BANQUET

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pp. 409-411

The Northern Star in its report of the Dijon banquet criticises the speech of Louis Blanc in remarks with which we completely concur. The union of the democrats of different nations does not exclude mutual criticism. It is impossible without such criticism. Without criticism there is no understanding and consequently no union. We reproduce the remarks of The Northern Star in order that we too, for our part, may protest...

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CHARTIST AGITATION

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pp. 412-414

Since the opening of Parliament Chartist agitation has developed enormously. Petitions are being prepared, meetings held and Chartist agents are travelling everywhere. Besides the great National Petition for the People's Charter which this time, it is hoped, will collect four million signatures, two other petitions for the Chartist Land Company have just been submitted to the people; the first, edited by O'Connor...

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WAGES

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pp. 415-437

Explained already: 1. Wages = price of the commodity. Hence, generally speaking, wages are determined in the same way as prices. Human activity=commodity. Manifestation of life, life activity, appears as mere means; existence divorced from this activity as purpose. 2. As commodity wages depend on competition, demand and supply. 3. The supply...

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THE "SATISFIED" MAJORITY.—GUIZOT'S SCHEME OF "REFORM".—QUEER NOTIONS OF M. GARNIER-PAGÈS.—DEMOCRATIC BANQUET AT CHÂLON.—SPEECH OF M. LEDRU-ROLLIN.—A DEMOCRATIC CONGRESS.—SPEECH OF M. FLOCON.

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pp. 438-444

The French Chambers are now open, and we shall very soon have the pleasure of seeing what effect the Reform agitation has had upon the 225 "satisfied" members of the majority.3 We shall see whether they will be satisfied, too, with the manner in which Guizot has exposed France in the Swiss question to the ridicule of all Europe. Why, this fat, corrupting and corrupted stock-jobbing, swindling, blood-sucking,...

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[THE COERCION BILL FOR IRELANDAND THE CHARTISTS]

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pp. 445-447

The Irish Coercion Bill came into force last Wednesday.3 The Lord Lieutenantb was not slow in taking advantage of the despotic powers with which this new law invests him; the act has been applied all over the counties of Limerick and Tipperary and to several baronies in the counties of Clare, Waterford, Cork, Roscommon, Leitrim, Cavan, Longford and King's County.289 It remains....

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FEARGUS O'CONNOR AND THE IRISH PEOPLE

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pp. 448-449

The first issue of The Northern Starior 1848 contains an address to the Irish people by Feargus O'Connor, the well-known leader of the English Chartists and their representative in Parliament. This address deserves to be read from beginning to end and carefully considered by every democrat, but our restricted space prevents us from reproducing it in full. We would,...

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SPEECH ON THE QUESTION OF FREE TRADE

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pp. 450-465

Gentlemen,—The Repeal of the Corn Laws247 in England is the greatest triumph of Free Trade in the nineteenth century. In every country where manufacturers discuss Free Trade, they have in mind chiefly Free Trade in corn or raw material generally. To burden foreign corn with protective duties is infamous, it is to speculate on the hunger of the people. Cheap food, high wages,3 for this alone the English Free Tradersb have spent millions, and their enthusiasm has already infected their Continental brethren...

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THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT

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pp. 466-467

The Society of Fraternal Democrats at its last meeting adopted an address to the workers of Great Britain and Ireland. This address, edited by Mr. Harney, of The Northern Star, is published in the latest number of this newspaper.250 After recalling, in a portrayal as rapid as eloquent, the sufferings of the working class today, this address calls on the workers of the two islands to complete their party organisation: On all sides the middle...

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THE SITUATION IN FRANCE

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pp. 468-468

What does the Ministry do?—Nothing. What does the parliamentary, legal opposition do?—Nothing. What can France expect from the present Chambers?—Nothing. What does M. Guizot want?—To remain Minister. What do Messrs...

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EXTRAORDINARY REVELATIONS.—ABDEL-KADER.—GUIZOT'S FOREIGN POLICY

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pp. 469-472

A curious document has just been published and distributed,3 as if for a New Year's gift to the Chamber of Deputies. It is a statement of facts explaining how a certain M. Petit got the place of a tax collector (receveur particulier) at Corbeil, near Paris, and has been published by M. Petit himself. M. Petit has been forced to this act in consequence of a suit for separation...

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THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT

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pp. 473-476

The fourth meeting convened for the adoption of the National Petition by the Chartist Council was held in London last Tuesday.3 Mr. Julian Harney presided. Messrs Clark and Dixon, of the Chartist central committee,b West, of Macclesfield, Skelton, Keen, and Fussell spoke in turn. But the orators of the evening were Messrs Harney and Jones. We give extracts...

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MANIFESTOOF THE COMMUNIST PARTY

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pp. 477-519

A spectre is haunting Europe—the spectre of Communism. All the Powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Czar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies. Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as Communistic by its opponents in power? Where the Opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of Communism, against the more advanced...

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THE MOVEMENTS OF 1847

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pp. 520-529

The year 1847 was certainly the most stormy we have experienced for a very long time. A constitution and a United Diet in Prussia267; an unexpectedly rapid awakening in political life and a general arming against Austria in Italy; a civil war in Switzerland268; a new Parliament of pronounced radical complexion in Britain; in France scandals and Reform banquets; in America the conquest of Mexico by the United States...

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THE BEGINNING OF THE END IN AUSTRIA

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pp. 530-536

"It will endure Metternich and me," said the late Emperor Franz. If Metternich does not wish to give his emperor the lie, he had better die as soon as possible. This chequered Austrian monarchy, scraped together by theft and by inheritance, this organised jumble of ten languages and nations, this planless mish-mash of contradictory customs and laws, is at last beginning to disintegrate. Honest German citizens have for years been fervent admirers of the director...

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THE DÉBAT SOCIAL OF FEBRUARY 6ON THE DEMOCRATIC ASSOCIATION

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pp. 537-539

The Débat social of February 6 defends the Brussels Association Démocratique and its branches.290 We shall permit ourselves a few comments on the character of this defence. It may well be in the interest of the Belgian radical party to point out to the Catholics that they are acting against their own interest in denouncing the Belgian radical party. It may well be in the interest of the Belgian radical party to distinguish between lower and higher clergy and to compensate...

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THREE NEW CONSTITUTIONS

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pp. 540-544

Our predictions concerning the imminent triumph of the bourgeoisie3 are in fact being fulfilled more rapidly than we could have expected. In less than a fortnight three absolute monarchies have been transformed into constitutional states: Denmark, Naples and Sardinia. The movement in Italy has developed with remarkable rapidity. The Papal State, Tuscany and Sardinia in succession took their place at its head; one country impelled the next further and further, one advance always brought...

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[ON THE POLISH QUESTION]

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pp. 545-552

Gentlemen, There are striking analogies in history. The Jacobin of 1793 has become the Communist of the present day. In 1793, when Russia, Austria and Prussia divided up Poland, the three powers produced the constitution of 1791,302 which had been condemned unanimously because of its alleged Jacobin principles. And what had it proclaimed? The Polish constitution of 1791! Nothing other...

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A WORD TO THE RIFORMA

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pp. 553-555

The Riforma of Lucca has printed a reply to one of those well-known and vile articles which the Augsburger Zeitung* is accustomed to publish on instructions from the Imperial Chancellery in Vienna.311 That trashy rag from the Lech3 had not only praised to the skies the loyalty of the 518,000 Austrian soldiers to their feeble-minded Ferdinand, but had also claimed that all these soldiers, Bohemians, Poles, Slovaks, Croats, Heyducks, Wallachians, Hungarians, Italians, etc., were bur...

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REVOLUTION IN PARIS

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pp. 556-558

The year 1848 is turning out well. The Sicilian revolution with its long train of constitutions is hardly over before Paris experiences a victorious insurrection. The opposition deputies had publicly pledged themselves to defend the right of assembly against Guizot, Duchâtel and Hébert by means of a courageous demonstration. All the preparations had been made. The hall was ready and awaited the banquet guests. Then suddenly, when the time had come to act, the poltroons...

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TO THE EDITOR OF THE NORTHERN STAR

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pp. 559-563

Dear Sir, After the important events accomplished in France, the position taken by the Belgian people and government is of a greater interest than in ordinary times. I hasten, therefore, to inform your readers of what has happened since Friday, 25th of February. The excitement and inquietude was universal in this town on the evening of that day. All sorts of rumours were spread, but nothing was really...

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TO THE EDITOR OF LA RÉFORME

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pp. 564-566

Dear Sir, At the present moment the Belgian government is aligning itself entirely with the policy of the Holy Alliance. Its reactionary fury falls on the German democrats with unprecedented brutality. Were we not too distressed by the persecution directed specifically against us, we would openly laugh at the ridiculous attitude assumed by the Rogier ministry...

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[PERSECUTION OF FOREIGNERS IN BRUSSELS]

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pp. 567-568

On Sunday, February 27 the Brussels Democratic Association held its first public meeting since the news of the proclamation of the French Republic. It was known in advance that an immense crowd of workers, determined to lend their active help to all measures that the Association would judge it proper to undertake, would be present. The government, for its part, had spread the rumour that king Leopold was ready to...

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[THE SITUATION IN BELGIUM]

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pp. 569-570

The Belgian bourgeoisie refused a republic to the people fifteen days ago; now it is preparing itself to take the initiative in the republican movement. It cannot yet be proclaimed out loud, but it is whispered everywhere in Brussels: "Really, Leopold must go; really, only the republic can save us; but what we need is a good solid republic, without organisation of labour, without universal suffrage, without the...

FROM THE PREPARATORY MATERIALS

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PROTECTIONISTS

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pp. 573-573

1) have never protected small industry, only machine industry. Example: the school of List in Germany. Gulich.a 2) If we believe what the protectionists say, they merely preserve the status quo. Protection will never effect sales of the protected product on foreign markets. Hence reactionary.b 3) The last consolation of the protectionists is that the country is not exploited by foreign but by domestic capitalists. 4) It is said, indeed...

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DEMAND

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pp. 574-575

1) Demand. Most economists treat it almost exclusively from the individual standpoint. The world historic development of demand, its first universal development, depends firstly on the products of the various countries of the world becoming known to each other. If in the further course of development demand creates intercourse, initially it is intercourse which creates demand. Demand is the material content...

DRAFT PLAN FOR SECTION III OF THE MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY

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pp. 576-576

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PAGE FROM THE ROUGH DRAFT OF THE MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PART

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pp. 577-580

...We have seen, moreover: The Communists do not put forward a new theory of private property. They merely state the historical fact that the of the development of the social forces of production no longer

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NOTES ON THE ARREST, MALTREATMENT AND EXPULSION OF WILHELM WOLFF BY THE BRUSSELS POLICE FEBRUARY 27 TO MARCH 1, 1848

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pp. 581-582

We have seen, moreover: The Communists do not put forward a new theory of private property. They merely state the historical fact that the of the development of the social forces of production no longer

APPENDICES

RULESOF THE COMMUNIST LEAGUE

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pp. 585-588

[A CIRCULAR OF THE FIRST CONGRESSOF THE COMMUNIST LEAGUE TO THE LEAGUE MEMBERSJUNE 9, 1847

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pp. 589-600

NOTE BY MARX ON THE FORMATION OF THE BRUSSELS COMMUNITY AND CIRCLE OF THE COMMUNIST LEAGUE AUGUST 5, 1847

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pp. 601-601

THE CENTRAL AUTHORITY TO THE LEAGUE

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pp. 602-615

THE NORTHERN STAR ON THE MEETING IN LONDON ON NOVEMBER 29, 1847 TO MARK THE 17TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE POLISH INSURRECTION OF 1830

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pp. 616-623

ADDRESS OF THE DEMOCRATIC ASSOCIATIONOF BRUSSELS TO THE SWISS PEOPLE

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pp. 624-626

MINUTES OF ENGELS' LECTURE TO THE LONDON GERMAN WORKERS' EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY ON NOVEMBER 30, 1847

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pp. 627-629

MINUTES OF MARX'S REPORT TO THE LONDON GERMAN WORKERS' EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY ON NOVEMBER 30, 1847

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pp. 630-631

MINUTES OF ENGELS' LECTURE TO THE LONDON GERMAN WORKERS' EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY ON DECEMBER 7, 1847

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pp. 632-632

RULES OF THE COMMUNIST LEAGUE

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pp. 633-638

FROM THE REPORT OF THE DEUTSCHE-BRÜSSELER-ZEITUNG ON THE NEW YEAR'S EVE CELEBRATION OF THE GERMAN WORKERS' SOCIETY IN BRUSSELS DECEMBER 31, 1847

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pp. 639-639

THE ASSOCIATION DÉMOCRATIQUE OF BRUSSELS TO THE FRATERNAL DEMOCRATS ASSEMBLING IN LONDON

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pp. 640-642

FROM THE DEUTSCHE-BRÜSSELER-ZEITUNG'S REPORT ON THE MEETING OF THE DEMOCRATIC ASSOCIATION OF FEBRUARY 20, 1848

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pp. 643-643

FROM THE DEUTSCHE-BRÜSSELER-ZEITUNCS REPORT ON THE BRUSSELS CELEBRATION OF THE SECOND ANNIVERSARY OF THE 1846 CRACOW INSURRECTION

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pp. 644-644

TO THE CITIZENS, MEMBERS OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC

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pp. 645-646

TO MR. JULIAN HARNEY, EDITOR OF THE NORTHERN STAR, SECRETARY OF THE FRATERNAL DEMOCRATS SOCIETY,LONDON

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pp. 647-648

FERDIN AND FLOCON TO MARX

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pp. 649-649

ORDER OF LEOPOLD I, KING OF THE BELGIANS, FOR MARX'S EXPULSION FROM BELGIUM

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pp. 650-650

DECISION OF THE CENTRAL AUTHORITY OF THE COMMUNIST LEAGUE, MARCH 3, 1848

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pp. 651-652

TRAVEL DOCUMENT ISSUED TO MARX ON HIS EXPULSION FROM BELGIUM

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pp. 653-653

MINUTES OF THE MEETING OF THE PARIS COMMUNITY OF THE COMMUNIST LEAGUE OF MARCH 8, 1848

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pp. 654-655

MINUTES OF THE MEETING OF THE PARIS CIRCLE OF THE COMMUNIST LEAGUE OF MARCH 9, 1848

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pp. 656-657

ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE GERMAN WORKERS' CLUB IN PARIS

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pp. 658-658

NOTES AND INDEXES

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pp. 659-776