Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-ix

Translators

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p. x

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xxvi

The fifth volume of the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels contains a major joint work of the founders of Marxism, The German Ideology, together with the writings immediately connected with it. They were all written between the spring of 1845 and the spring of 1847, during Marx's stay in Brussels, where he moved in February 1845 following his deportation from France by the Guizot government. Engels came to Brussels from Barmen in April 1845 and remained till...

KARL MARX and FREDERICK ENGELS WORKS April 1845-April 1847

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[THESES ON FEUERBACHa]

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pp. 26-28

The chief defect of all previous materialism (that of Feuerbach included) is that things [Gegenstand], reality, sensuousness are conceived only in the form of the object, or of contemplation, but not as sensuous human activity, practice, not subjectively. Hence, in contradistinction to materialism, the active side was set forth abstractly by idealism—which, of course, does not know real, sensuous activity..

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[THESES ON FEUERBACHa]

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pp. 29-33

The chief defect of all previous materialism—that of Feuerbach included—is that things [Gegenstand], reality, sensuousness are conceived only in the form of the object, or of contemplation, but not as human sensuous activity, practice, not subjectively. Hence it happened that the activeside, in contradistinction to materialism, was set forth by idealism—but only abstractly, since, of course, idealism does not know real, sensuous activity...

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FEUERBACHa

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pp. 34-37

a) The entire philosophy of Feuerbach amounts to 1. philosophy of nature—passive adoration of nature and enraptured kneeling down before its splendour and omnipotence. 2. Anthropology, namely oc ) physiology, where nothing new is added to what the materialists have already said about the unity of body and soul, but it is said less mechanically and with rather more exuberance, jj) psychology...

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[A REPLY TO BRUNO BAUER'S ANTI-CRITIQUE5]

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pp. 38-41

Brussels, November 20. In Wigand's Vierteljahrsschrift, Vol. Ill, p. 138 ff., Bruno Bauer stammers out a few words in answer to Die heilige Familie, oder Kritik der kritischen Kritik, 1845, by Engels and Marx.3 At the outset Bruno Bauer declares that Engelsand Marx have misunderstood him; with unaffected naïveté he repeats his old pretentious phrases, which have long since been reduced to nothing, and regrets that....

THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY

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pp. 42-43

Volume I CRITIQUE

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pp. 44-45

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Preface

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pp. 46-49

Hitherto men have always formed wrong ideas about themselves, about what they are and what they ought to be. They have arranged their relations according to their ideas of God, of normal man, etc. The products of their brains have got out of their hands. They, the creators, have bowed down before their creations. Let us liberate them from the chimeras, the ideas, dogmas, imaginary beings under the yoke of which...

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FEUERBACH

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pp. 50-116

|sh.l| According to German ideologists, Germany has in the last few years gone through an unparalleled revolution. The decomposition of the Hegelian system, which began with Strauss,9 has developed into a universal ferment into which all the "powers of the past" are swept. In the general chaos mighty empires have arisen only to meet with immediate doom, heroes have emerged momentarily to be again hurled into obscurity by bolder and stronger rivals. It was a revolution....

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THE LEIPZIG COUNCIL

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pp. 117-119

In the third volume of the Wigand'sche Vierteljahrsschrift for 1845 the battle of the Huns, prophetically portrayed by Kaulbach,38 actually takes place. The spirits of the slain, whose fury is not appeased even in death, raise a hue and crv, which sounds like the thunder of battles and war-cries, the clatter of swords, shields and iron waggons. But it is not a battle over earthly things. The holy war is being waged not over protective tariffs, the constitution, potato blight,'9 banking...

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II SAINT BRUNO

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pp. 120-139

Before turning to the solemn discussion which Bauer's selfconsciousness has with itself and the world, we should reveal one secret. Saint Bruno uttered the battle-cry and kindled the war only because he had to "safeguard" himself and his stale, soured criticism against the ungrateful forgetfulness of the public, only because he had to show that, in the changed conditions of 1845, criticism always remained itself and unchanged. He wrote the second volume of the "good cause and...

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I l l SAINT MAX

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pp. 140-473

Saint Max exploits, "employs" or "uses" the Council to deliver a long apologetic commentary on "the book", which is none other than "the book", the book as such, the book pure and simple, i.e., the perfect book, the Holy Book, the book as something holy, the book as the holy of holies, the book in heaven, viz., Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum. "The book", as we know, fell from the heavens towards the end of 1844 and took on the shape of a servant with O. Wigand in Leipzig.46 It was,...

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CLOSE OF THE LEIPZIG COUNCIL

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pp. 474-475

After driving all their opponents from the Council, Saint Bruno and Saint Sancho, also called Max, conclude an eternal alliance and sing the following touching duet, amicably nodding their heads to one another like two mandarins. Saint Sancho. "The critic is the true spokesman of the mass.... He is its sovereign and general in the war of liberat...

Volume II CRITIQUE OF GERMAN SOCIALISM ACCORDING TO ITS VARIOUS PROPHETS

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pp. 476-477

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TRUE SOCIALISM

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pp. 478-480

The relation between German socialism and the proletarian movement in France and England is the same as that which we found in the first volume (cf. "Saint Max", "Political Liberalism") between German liberalism, as it has hitherto existed, and the movement of the French and English bourgeoisie.a Alongside the German communists, a number of writers have appeared who have absorbed a few French..

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I DIE RHEINISCHEN JAHRBÜCHER OR THE PHILOSOPHY OF TRUE SOCIALISM

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pp. 481-506

We begin with this essay because it displays quite consciously and with great self-confidence the national German character of true socialism. Page 168: "It seems that the French do not understand their own men of genius. At this point German science comes to their aid and in the shape of socialism presents the most reasonable...

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IV KARL GRÜN: DIE SOZIALE BEWEGUNG IN FRANKREICH UND BELGIENa(DARMSTADT 1845)OR THE HISTORIOGRAPHY OF TRUE SOCIALISM

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pp. 507-553

With this haughty and Rhadamanthine pronouncement Herr Grün begins a review (in the Neue Anekdota, pp. 122, 123) of Mundt's Geschichte der Gesellschaft. The reader will be amazed at the artistic talent shown by Herr Grün, who actually gives, in this guise, a criticism of his own book, which at that time was not yet born. We observe...

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V "DOCTOR GEORG KUHLMANN OF HOLSTEIN" OR THE PROPHECIES OF TRUE SOCIALISM

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pp. 554-562

August Becker, the writer of these lines, thus allowed himself to be persuaded, by a person of a very simple mind and very ambiguous character, that not a single riddle has yet been solved, not a single vital energy aroused—that the communist movement, which has already gripped all civilised countries, is an empty nut whose kernel cannot be discovered; that it is a universal egg, laid by some great universal hen....

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[THE TRUE SOCIALISTS144]

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pp. 563-605

Since the above descriptions of the true socialists were written, several months have elapsed. During this period true socialism, which so far had sprung up only sporadically here and there, has experienced a spectacular upsurge. It has found representatives in all parts of the Fatherland, it has even attained a certain significance as a literary party. Furthermore, it is already divided into several groups which, although firmly linked by the common bond of German sincerity and scientific spirit, and by common efforts and aims, are nevertheless...

NOTES AND INDEXES

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pp. 606-684