Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-xi

TRANSLATORS

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p. xiii

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Preface

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pp. xv-xxvii

The fourth volume of the Collected Works of Marx and Engels includes their works written from the time when their close friendship was first established (late August-early September 1844) to the autumn of 1845. Beginning with the present volume, works of both Marx and Engels will be published in this edition in the chronological order in which they were written. The meeting of Marx and Engels in Paris in August 1844 inaugurated their...

KARL MARX and FREDERICK ENGELS WORKS September 1844-November 1845

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pp. 1-4

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Karl Marx and Frederick Engels THE HOLY FAMILY OR CRITIQUE OF CRITICAL CRITICISM

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pp. 5-211

Real humanism has no more dangerous enemy in Germany than spiritualism or speculative idealism, which substitutes "selfconsciousness" or the "spirit" for the real individual man and with the evangelist teaches: "It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing." Needless to say, this incorporeal spirit is spiritual only in its imagination. What we are combating in Bower's criticism is precisely...

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[CONTINENTAL SOCIALISM]

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pp. 212-213

Continental Socialism seems to deserve and to obtain a considerable portion of public attention at present. I forward you a few extracts from a letter addressed me from Barmen in Prussia, by a former contributor to the New Moral World. "In Paris, on my way home, I visited a Communist Club of the mystic school. I was introduced by a Russian who speaks French and German perfectly,a and who very cleverly opposed Feuerbach's reasoning...

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DESCRIPTION OF RECENTLY FOUNDED COMMUNIST COLONIES STILL IN EXISTENCE

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pp. 214-228

When one talks to people about socialism or communism, one very frequently finds that they entirely agree with one regarding the substance of the matter and declare communism to be a very fine thing; "but", they then say, "it is impossible ever to put such things into practice in real life". One encounters this objection so frequently that it seems to the writer both useful and necessary to reply to it with a few facts which are still very little known in Germany and...

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RAPID PROGRESS OF COMMUNISM IN GERMANY

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pp. 229-242

Hoping, as I do, that your countrymen will be glad to hear something on the progress of our common cause on this side of the channel, I send you a few lines for your paper.3 At the same time, I rejoice in being able to show that the German people, though, as usual, rather late in mooting the question of Social Reform, are now exerting themselves to make up for lost time. Indeed, the rapidity with which Socialism has progressed in this country is quite miraculous...

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SPEECHES IN ELBERFELD

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pp. 243-264

Gentlemen! As you have just heard and as, moreover, I may assume it to be generally known, we live in a world of free competition. Let us then look a little closer at this free competition and at the world order to which it has given rise. In our present-day society, each man works on his own, each strives for his own enrichment and is not in the least concerned with what the rest are doing; rational organisation, or distribution of jobs, is out of the question; on the contrary, each seeks...

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DRAFT OF AN ARTICLE ON FRIEDRICH LIST'S BOOKDAS NATIONALE SYSTEMDER POLITISCHEN OEKONOMIE

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pp. 265-294

... [2] that awareness of the death of the bourgeoisie has already penetrated the consciousness even of the German bourgeois, so the German bourgeois is naive enough himself to admit this "sad fact". "For this reason also it is so sad that the evils which in our day accompany industry are advanced as a reason for rejecting industry itself. There exist far greater evils than a social estate [Stand] of proletarians: an empty exchequer— national impotence—national slavery—national death" (p. LXVU). It is truly sadder that the proletariat already exists and already advances claims, and already inspires fear, before the German bourgeois has yet achieved the development of industry. As far as the proletarian...

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THE CONDITION OF THE WORKING-CLASS IN ENGLAND

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pp. 295-583

Working Men! To you I dedicate a work, in which I have tried to lay before my German Countrymen a faithful picture of your condition, of your sufferings and struggles, of your hopes and prospects. I have lived long enough amidst you to know something about your circumstances; I have devoted to their knowledge my most serious attention, I have studied the various official and non-official documents as far as I was able to get hold of them—I have not been satisfied with...

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Postscript to CONDITION OF THE WORKING-CLASS IN ENGLAND

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pp. 584-596

In my book on the above subject I was unable to give factual proof of individual points. In order not to make the book too thick and indigestible, I had to consider my statements sufficiently proven when I had confirmed them by quotations from official documents, impartial writers or the writings of the parties whose interests I was attacking. This sufficed to guard me against contradiction in...

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PEUCHET: ON SUICIDE

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pp. 597-612

French criticism of society has, at least, in part the great merit of having shown up the contradictions and unnaturalness of modern life not only in the relationships of particular classes, but in all circles and forms of modern intercourse. And it has done that in accounts evincing the warmth of life itself, broadness of view, refined subtlety, and bold originality of spirit, which one will seek in vain in any other..

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A FRAGMENT OF FOURIER'S ON TRADE204

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pp. 613-644

The Germans are gradually beginning to spoil the communist movement too. Here also being as always the last and most inactive, they believe they can conceal their somnolence by contempt for their predecessors and empty philosophical boasting. Communism has hardly come into existence in Germany before it is being seized on by a whole host of speculative minds who imagine they have performed miracles by translating into the language of...

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THE LATE BUTCHERY AT LEIPZIG.—THE GERMAN WORKING MEN'S MOVEMENT

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pp. 645-648

The massacre at Leipzig,227 which you commented on in your last number, and of which you £ave a more detailed account some weeks ago, is continuing to occupy the attention of the German papers. This massacre,— surpassed in infamy by that of Peterloo228 only,— is by far the most villainous act of scoundrelism that military despotism ever devised in this country. When the people were shouting, "Ronge...

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VICTORIA'S VISIT.—THE "ROYALS" AT LOGGERHEADS.—ROW BETWIXT VIC AND THE GERMAN BOURGEOISIE.—THE CONDEMNATION OF THE PARIS CARPENTERS

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pp. 649-650

Your little Queen has made a pretty mess of her visit to the Prussians. She treated the king3 with such contempt, that he was glad to get rid of her, and showed that very plainly after her departure. The middle classes too are highly incensed at the contemptuous way she treated the daughters of the "haute bourgeoisie" of Cologne. The daughter of the Mayor of Cologne had to present "her Majesty" with a cup of tea, and Vic took not the cup, because...

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"YOUNG GERMANY" IN SWITZERLAND252

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pp. 651-653

The Constitutionnel Neuchâtelois gives a long, apparently official, report on a "vast conspiracy of atheists spread all over Switzerland" We take from it the following extracts: — "After the discovery made some time ago of the Communist secret society, in the canton of Neuchâtel, another far more dangerous association has been discovered—an association extending its nets all over the Swiss confederacy, and purposing to overthrow, by means of Atheism, the fundamental principles of morality, and to revolutionize Germany by any means, Regicide not excepted. The members of this Association...

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PERSECUTION AND EXPULSION OF COMMUNISTS

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pp. 654-655

Germany.—On the 1 lth instant, the authorities of the Grand Dukedom of Hesse, seized at Darmstadt, at the publisher's premises, the first number of a Communist Magazine, the Rhenish Annals,* edited by Püttmann. There were, however, only fifty-five copies found, the remainder of the edition having been previously sold. The publisher, Mr. Leske, was at the same time informed that the Magazine was placed under the control of the police, he having to produce...

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HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH CORN LAWS236

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pp. 656-662

Until the middle of the last century England exported grain almost every year and very seldom needed to import this foodstuff from abroad. Since that time, however, the situation has been reversed. Under these circumstances the price of grain, on the one hand, was necessarily low and that of meat, on the other, was high, much arable land was converted into cattle pasture, while at the same time industry, and with it the population, owing to the invention of important machines, experienced an unprecedented growth. Hence...

FROM THE PREPARATORY MATERIALS

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HEGELS CONSTRUCTION OF THE PHENOMENOLOGY

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pp. 665-665

1) Self-consciousness instead of man. Subject—object. 2) The differences of things are unimportant, because substance is conceived as self-distinction or because self-distinction, the distinguishing, the mental activity is regarded as the essential. Within the framework of speculation Hegel therefore makes distinctions that really grasp the vital point. 3) Abolition of...

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DRAFT PLAN FOR A WORK ON THE MODERN STATE

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pp. 666-666

1) The history of the origin of the modern state or the French Revolution. The self-conceit of the political sphere—to mistake itself for the ancient state. The attitude of the revolutionaries towards civil society. All elements exist in duplicate form, as civic elements and [those of] the state. 2) The proclamation of the rights of man and the constitution of the state. Individual...

PLAN OF THE "LIBRARY OF THE BEST FOREIGN SOCIALIST WRITERS

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pp. 667-667

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FROM THE NOTEBOOK

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pp. 668-668

The divine egoist as opposed to egoistical man. The delusion regarding the ancient state prevailing during the revolution. "Concept' and "substance". The revolution=history of the origin of the modern state. Written presumably in April 1845 First published in..

APPENDICES

TO THE READERS OF AND CONTRIBUTORS TO THE GESELL SCHAFTS SPIEGEL

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pp. 671-674

2CONTRACT

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pp. 675-675

3MARX T O LEOPOLD I, KING OF BELGIUM,IN BRUSSELS2

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pp. 676-676

MARX'S UNDERTAKING NOT TO PUBLISH ANYTHINGIN BELGIUM ON CURRENT POLITICS

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pp. 677-677

MARX TO CHIEF BURGOMASTER GÖRTZIN TRIER252

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pp. 678-678

MARX TO CHIEF BURGOMASTER GORTZIN TRIER

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pp. 679-680

NOTESANDINDEXES

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pp. 681-779