Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-viii

Translators

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p. ix

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Preface

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pp. xi-xxiv

One of the most exciting and important developments in Asian American cinema has been the emergence of independently produced queer Wlm and video. Since the early 1990s, cultural workers from marginalized communities have, responding to the relative paucity of public funding for the arts, increasingly turned to low-budget media production as a means of cultural...

KARL MARXWORKS March 1843-August 1844

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CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITIQUE OF HEGEL'S PHILOSOPHY OF LAW

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pp. 3-129

261. "Over against the spheres of civil law and personal welfare, the family and civil society, the state is on the one handan external necessity and their superior authority, and both their laws and interests are subordinate to and dependent upon the nature of this authority. , however, the state is their immanent end, and its strength lies in the unity of its ultimate general purpose with the particular interest of individuals — in the fact that they have duties towards the state since they have rights...

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[A Passage from THE KREUZNACH NOTEBOOKS OF 1843

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pp. 130-130

Note. Under Louis XVIII, the constitution [by] grace of the king (Charter imposed by the king); under Louis Philippe, the king [by] grace of the constitution (imposed kingship).14 In general we can note that the conversion of the subject into the predicate, and of the predicate into the subject, the exchange of that which determines for that which is determined, is always the most immediate revolution...

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[DRAFT PROGRAMMEOF THE DEUTSCH-FRANZÖSISCHE JAHRBÜCHER]15

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pp. 131-131

The articles of our annals will be written by Germans or Frenchmen, and will deal with 1) Men and systems which have acquired a useful or dangerous influence, and political questions of the day, whether they concern constitutions, political economy, or public institutions and morals. 2) We shall provide a review of newspapers and journals which in some way will be a castigation...

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR OF THE DÉMOCRATIE PACIFIQUE

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pp. 132-132

No. 28 of the Bien public contains the following lines: "The Kölnische Zeitung publishes a letter from Leipzig in which it is stated that a journal in French and German is due to appear shortly in Paris under the editorship of Dr. Ruge, to which M. de Lamartine and M. de Lamennais are said to have promised their collaboration. "It is not true that M. de Lamartine has undertaken to write in any journal and, in particular, in the one in question, with M. de Lamennais. "M. de Lamartine...

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LETTERS FROM THE DEUTSCH-FRANZÖSISCHE JAHRBÜCHER118

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pp. 133-145

I am now travelling in Holland. As far as I can judge from the Dutch and French newspapers, Germany is sunk deep in the mire and will sink still deeper. I assure you, even if one has no feeling of national pride at all, nevertheless one has a feeling of national shame, even in Holland. The most insignificant Dutchman is still a citizen compared with the greatest German. And the verdict of the foreigners on the Prussian...

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ON THE JEWISH QUESTION24

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pp. 146-174

The German Jews desire emancipation. What kind of emancipation do they desire? Civic, political emancipation. Bruno Bauer replies to them: No one in Germany is politically emancipated. We ourselves are not free. How are we to free you? You Jews are egoists if you demand a special emancipation for yourselves as Jews. As Germans, you ought to work for the political emancipation of...

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CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITIQUE OF HEGEL'S PHILOSOPHY OF LAW

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pp. 175-187

For Germany the criticism of religion is in the main complete, and criticism of religion is the premise of all criticism. The profane existence of error is discredited after its heavenly oratio pro aris et /octsa has been disproved. Man, who looked for a superhuman being in the fantastic reality of heaven and found nothing there but the reflection of himself, will no longer be disposed to find but....

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR OF THE ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG (AUGSBURG)

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pp. 188-188

The diverse rumours which have been spread by German newspapers concerning the discontinuation of the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher impel me to state that the Swiss publishers of the Jahrbücher suddenly withdrew from this enterprise for economic reasons and thus made....

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CRITICAL MARGINAL NOTES ON THE ARTICLE "THE KING OF PRUSSIA AND SOCIAL REFORM BY A PRUSSIAN

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pp. 189-206

No. 60 of Vorwärts contains an article headed "Der König von Preussen und die Sozialreform", signed "A Prussian". First of all this alleged Prussian sets out the content of the royal Prussian Cabinet order on the uprising of the Silesian workers and the opinion of the French newspaper La Réforme on the Prussian Cabinet order.38...

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ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE LATEST EXERCISE IN CABINET STYLE OF FREDERICK WILLIAM IV

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pp. 207-210

Immediate emotion is a bad writer. The letter which a lover writes in great excitement to his beloved is no model of style, but it is just this confusion of expression that is the clearest, most obvious and most moving expression of the power of love over the writer of the letter. The power of love over the letter-writer is the power of his beloved over him. That passionate unclarity and erratic confusion...

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[COMMENTS ON JAMES MILL, ÊLÉMENSD'ÉCONOMIE POLITIQUETranslated by J. T. Parisot, Paris, 1823]

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pp. 211-228

||XXV In the compensation of money and value of metal, as in his description of the cost of production as the only factor in determining value,49 Mill commits the mistake — like the school of Ricardo in general — of stating the abstract law without the change or continual supersession of this law through which alone it comes into being. If it is a constant law that, for example, the cost of production in the...

[ECONOMIC AND PHILOSOPHIC MANUSCRIPTS OF 184454]

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pp. 229-346

LETTERS October 1843-August 1844

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1843

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pp. 349-353

Dear Sir, A few months ago while passing through [Bruckberg], Dr. Ruge informed you of our plan to publish Franco-German Jahrbücher and asked at the same time for your collaboration. It has now been already settled that Paris is to be the place for printing and publication and that the first monthly number is to appear by the end of November. Before I leave for Paris in a...

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1844

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pp. 354-358

Dear Sir, Since I just have the opportunity, I take the liberty of sending you an article of mine in which some elements of my critical philosophy of law2 are outlined. I had already finished it once but have since revised it in order to make it more generally comprehensible. I don't attribute any exceptional value to this essay but I am glad...

FROM THE PREPARATORY MATERIALS

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FROM THE MEMOIRES DE R. LEVASSEUR (DE LA SARTHE

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pp. 361-374

"So what we today assume to have been the frenzy of a few excited maniacs, was the general feeling of a whole people and in a way its manner of life." P. 21. "Later one saw different opinions dividing the nation; but it was not like Ais in 1788: all those in France who were not making a living out of abuses were united in a unanimous wish to destroy a rule of the sword; all those who were not devourers of the national wealth wished to see its management entrusted to the representatives of the people; all those who were not members of the privileged castes wished to see the law applied equally to...

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SUMMARY OF FREDERICK ENGELS' ARTICLE" OUTLINES OF A CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY" PUBLISHED IN DEUTSCH-FRANZÖSISCHE JAHRBÜCHE

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pp. 375-376

Private property. Its immediate consequence—trade—like every activity, is a direct source of gain for the trader. The next category to which trade gives rise is value. Abstract real value and exchange-value. For Say utility is the determining feature of real value, for Ricardo and Mill*— the cost of production. For the Englishmen, competition as against the cost of production represents utility; for Say...

FREDERICK ENGELSWORKS May 1843-June 1844

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LETTERS FROM LONDON

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pp. 379-391

The democratic party in England is making rapid progress. While Whiggism and Toryism, the moneyed aristocracy and the landed aristocracy are engaged in a boring verbal battle over trifles in the "national talkshop", as the Tory Thomas Carlyle calls it, or in the "House which claims to represent the parishes of England", as the Chartist Feargus O'Connor says, while the Established Church...

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PROGRESS OF SOCIAL REFORMON THE CONTINENT

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pp. 392-408

It has always been in some degree surprising to me, ever since I met with English Socialists, to find that most of them are very little acquainted with the social movement going on in different parts of the continent. And yet there are more than half a million of Communists in France, not taking into account the Fourierists, and other less radical Social reformers; there are Communist associations...

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PROGRESS OF COMMUNISM IN GERMANY.PERSECUTION OF THE COMMUNISTS INSWITZERLAND

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pp. 409-409

Frankfort, November 26. The associations of the working classes for the purpose of introducing practically the ideas of socialism, or rather communism, by means of revolutionary reform, become daily more frequent and more dangerous. The governments are daily issuing decrees against the wandering customs of artisans and apprentices; they especially...

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THE TIMES ON GERMAN COMMUNISM

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pp. 410-413

Sir.—Seeing the paper from the Times on the Communists in Germany, republished in The New Moral World,170 I thought it better not to let it pass without some commentatory remarks, which you perhaps will find worth inserting. The Times hitherto enjoyed on the continent the reputation of a well-informed newspaper, but a few more articles like that on German Communism...

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FRENCH COMMUNISM

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pp. 414-414

DEAR SIR,—In my letter to you in the New Moral World of the 13th instant I committed an error. I considered the correspondent of the Times wrong in naming a M. Constant as a Communista; but since I wrote, I have received some French Communist publications, in which an Abbé Constant is named as a partisan of the Community System. At the same time, Mr. Goodwyn Barmby had the kindness to...

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CONTINENTAL MOVEMENTS

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pp. 415-416

The well-known novel of Eugène Sue, The Mysteries of Paris, has made a deep impression upon the public mind, especially in Germany; the forcible manner in which this book depicts the misery and demoralisation falling to the share of the "lower orders" in great cities, could not fail to direct public attention to the state of the poor in general. The...

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THE PRESS AND THE GERMAN DESPOTS

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pp. 417-417

Our readers are aware of the rapid progress in Germany of Republican and Communist principles, which progress has of late excited unusual terror amongst the crowned brigands and their advisers of that great confederation of nations.3 Additional measures of repression are, therefore, being called into operation to check the growth of these "dangerous...

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OUTLINES OF A CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY

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pp. 418-468

Political economy came into being as a natural result of the expansion of trade, and with its appearance elementary, unscientific huckstering was replaced by a developed system of licensed fraud, an entire science of enrichment. This political economy or science of enrichment born of the merchants' mutual envy and greed, bears on its brow the mark of the most detestable...

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THE CONDITION OF ENGLAND

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pp. 469-488

The century of revolution has to all appearances passed England by, causing little change. While on the Continent an entire old world was shattered, while a twenty-five-year war201 cleared the air, in England everything remained calm, neither state nor church were in any way threatened. And yet since the middle of the last century England has experienced a greater upheaval than any other country—an upheaval which is all the more momentous the more quietly...

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THE CONDITION OF ENGLAND

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pp. 489-513

In the previous article we elaborated the criteria for assessing the present position of the British Empire in the history of civilisation, and gave the relevant facts concerning the development of the English nation insofar as they are indispensable to this purpose but are little known on the Continent; having thus justified our initial assumptions, we can now proceed without more ado to...

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LETTER TO THE EDITOROF THE NORTHERN STAR

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pp. 514-514

I propose furnishing you with reports concerning the progress of the movement party on the Continent for the Star, extracts from the German papers, and of my correspondence with wellinformed men in Paris and Germany. I see with pleasure, that your paper contains more and better information about the state of public opinion in France than all other English papers together; and I should...

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[THE SITUATION IN PRUSSIA]

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pp. 515-516

When Frederick William IV ascended the throne there was not a more popular monarch in all Europe. Now, there is none more unpopular; not one, not even Nicholas of Russia, who is at least worshipped by the dumb beastly stupidity of his degraded serfs. The Prussian King, who calls himself emphatically "the Christian King", and...

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[NEWS FROM GERMANY]

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pp. 517-518

In the Chamber of Deputies of the Grand Duchy of Baden, Mr. Welcker, a liberal member and the Lord John Russell of that country, implored the government to do something in order to satisfy the discontented feelings of the people: "for", said he, "I have been travelling much in all parts of Germany, and have been visited there...

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FATE OF A TRAITOR

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pp. 519-520

Count Adam Gurowski, who took an active part in the revolution of 1830, afterwards deserted his party, was allowed to return to his country, and became notorious in a very unenviable manner by some publications,227 in which he advised his countrymen to consider the annihilation of their independence as a judgment of God, to which they...

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BEER RIOTS IN BAVARIA

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pp. 521-522

The Bavarian Beer is the most celebrated of all kinds of this drink brewed in Germany, and, of course, the Bavarians are much addicted to its consumption in rather large quantities. The government laid a new duty of about 100s. ad valorem on beer, and in consequence of this an outbreak occurred, which lasted more than four days. The working men assembled in large masses, paraded through...

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[PARSONOCRACY IN PRUSSIA]

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pp. 523-523

The parsonocracy of this country, enjoying the peculiar protection and favour of the present government, assume every day a more haughty position. It has, for instance, lately occurred in Berlin, that one parson after the other refused to perform marriage ceremonies on a Saturday, alleging as his reason for this refusal, that the parties would in all probability not rise on Sunday morning in a fit state...

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[NEWS FROM St. PETERSBURG]

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pp. 524-524

Considerable ministerial changes have occurred in St. Petersburg. The Minister of Finance, M. Cancrin, has fallen into disgrace, and the same is reported concerning the Police Minister, the well-known Count Benkendorff. Nicholas is evidently struggling to keep up a system which is rapidly ruining itself. The anti-Russian feeling in Germany and the other continental states is upon the increase

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THE CIVIL WAR IN THE VALAIS

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pp. 525-526

The valley of the River Rhone, from its source at the foot of the glacier du Rhone to the Lake Leman,a is one of the finest countries in the world. On its sides are the highest mountains of Europe, two uninterrupted chains of a mean height of 12,000 feet, covered with eternal snow, from which spring the numberless rivulets which feed the Rhone and fertilise the meadows and fields of the valley. Here, within...

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[NEWS FROM FRANCE]

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pp. 527-529

There has been a serious turn-out of colliers at Rive de Jier, near Lyons, for wages and other grievances. This affair offered upon the whole the same features as the English strikes: processions with banners, meetings, molesting of knobsticks, &c. The strike lasted about six weeks; several of the men were imprisoned for conspiracy, though no serious disturbance appears to have occurred. At last the...

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[NEWS FROM PRUSSIA]

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pp. 530-531

The people have achieved a great triumph; they have by their steady and protracted opposition forced the King" to abandon his pet measure, the proposed new law of divorce.237 The present law in this respect is very liberal, and, of course, never pleased the Christian King. Ever since his accession to the throne, he was big with an amended law, by which a divorce was to be granted in very few cases only...

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FURTHER PARTICULARS OF THE SILESIAN RIOTS

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pp. 532-534

The riots commenced, as stated in my last,2 at Peterswalden, in the District of Reichenbach, the centre of the manufacturing part of Silesia. The weavers assembled before the house of one of the most respectable manufacturers, of the name of Zwanziger, singing a song, in which the behaviour of this individual towards his workmen was animadverted upon, and which seems to have been manufactured...

SUPPLEMENT

Frederick Engels COLA DI RIENZI

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pp. 537-568

APPENDICES

MARRIAGE CONTRACT

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pp. 571-572

EXTRACT FROM THE REGISTER OF MARRIAGES OF THE REGISTRY OFFICE OF BAD KREUZNACH FOR THE YEAR 184

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pp. 573-574

JENNY MARX TO KARL MARX

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pp. 575-579

JENNY MARX TO KARL MARX

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pp. 580-580

JENNY MARX TO KARL MARX

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pp. 581-584

NOTES AND INDEXES

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pp. 585-670