Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-ix

TRANSLATORS

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p. xi

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xxiv

The Second Volume of the Collected Works of Marx and Engels contains Engels' early writings and letters dating from the years 1838 to 1842, grouped together in two main sections. A special section contains his poetic and prose works in manuscript of an earlier period (1833-37); other biographical material is given in appendices. Engels' outlook developed on similar lines to that of the young Marx. He had steeped himself in the progressive philosophical and political...

FREDERICK ENGELS WORKS August 1838-December 1842

THE BEDOUIN

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pp. 3-4

TO THE ENEMIES

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pp. 5-5

BOOK WISDOM

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pp. 6-6

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LETTERS FROM WUPPERTAL

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pp. 7-25

As is well known, people understand by this name, held in much ill-repute among the Friends of Light,5 the two towns of Elberfeld and Barmen, which stretch along the valley for a distance of nearly three hours' travel. The purple waves of the narrow river flow sometimes swiftly, sometimes sluggishly between smoky factory buildings and yarn-strewn bleaching-yards. Its bright red colour, however...

TO THE BREMEN COURIER

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pp. 26-26

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[OPEN LETTER TO DR. RUNKEL]

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pp. 27-28

You have violently attacked me and my "Letters from Wuppertal" in your newspaper and accused me of deliberate distortion, ignorance of the conditions, personal abuse and even untruths. It does not matter to me that you call me a Young German, for I neither accept the charges you level against Young Literature nor have the...

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[F. W. KRUMMACHER'S SERMON ON JOSHUA]

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pp. 29-29

In a recent sermon in Elberfeld on Joshua 10:12-13, where Joshua bids the sun stand still, Krummacher advanced the interesting thesis that pious Christians, the Elect, should not suppose from this passage that Joshua was here accommodating himself to the views of the people, but must believe that the earth stands still and the sun moves round it. In defence of this view he showed that it is expressed...

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FROM ELBERFELD

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pp. 30-31

For some time there have been loud and bitter complaints about the deplorable power of scepticism; here and there one looked gloomily at the toppled edifice of the old faith, anxiously waiting for the clouds covering the sky of the future to break. With a similar feeling of melancholy I laid down the Lieder eines heimgegangenen Freundes; they are the songs of a dead man, a genuine Wuppertal...

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GERMAN VOLKSBUCHER

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pp. 32-40

Is it not a great commendation for a book to be a popular book, a book for the German people? Yet this gives us the right to demand a great deal of such a book; it must satisfy all reasonable requirements and its value in every respect must be unquestionable. The popular book has the task of cheering, reviving and entertaining the peasant when he returns home in the evening tired from his hard day's work, making him forget his toil, transformin...

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KARL BECK

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pp. 41-46

With these bombastic words Herr Beck approached the German poets' ranks, demanding admission; in his eyes the proud awareness of his calling, about his lips an expression of modern world-weariness. Thus he stretched out his hand for the laurel wreath. Two years have passed since then; does the laurel appeasingly cover the "mysterious folds" of his brow? There was much...

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RETROGRADE SIGNS OF THE TIMES

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pp. 47-52

There is nothing new under the sun! That is one of those happy pseudo-truths, which were destined to have a most brilliant career, which have passed from mouth to mouth in their triumphal procession round the globe, and after centuries are still often quoted as if they had only just made their appearance in the world. Genuine truths have rarely been so fortunate; they have had to struggle and suffer, they have been tortured and buried alive, and everyone...

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PLATEN

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pp. 53-54

Among the poetic offspring of the Restoration period, whose powers were not crippled by the electric shocks of the year 1830 and whose fame only became established in the present literary epoch, there are three who are distinguished by a characteristic similarity: Immermann, Chamisso, and Platen. All three possess unusual individuality, considerable character, and an intellectual power which at least outweighs their poetic talent. In Chamisso, it is sometimes...

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[ON THE INVENTION OF PRINTING

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pp. 55-62

The more gladdening the powerful intellectual movement by which Königsberg seeks to place itself at the centre of German political progress, and the freer and more developed the form in which public opinion manifests itself there, the more peculiar does it seem that this should be the place where a certain juste-milieu, which is obviously bound to come into conflict with the majority of the local people, is....

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JOEL JACOBY

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pp. 63-65

Görres' troupe of tight-rope dancers has acquired a valuable recruit in Joel Jacoby. The role of clown was previously performed by Herr Guido Görres, whose jokes, however, were not appreciated by the public; but in his Kampf und Sieg the new member has recently again demonstrated his vocation for this role in surprising fashion. Such a versatile man, who can wear with equal grace...

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REQUIEM FOR THE GERMAN ADELSZEITUNG

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pp. 66-70

The day that Luther produced the original text of the New Testament and with this Greek fire burnt to dust and ashes the centuries of the Middle Ages, with their lordly splendour and feudal servitude, with their poetry and lack of thought,52 that day and the three centuries that followed brought forth, at long last, a time...

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MODERN LITERARY LIFE

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pp. 71-93

One would have thought that after Gutzkow's well-known article in the Jahrbuch der Literatur57 his opponents would feel moved to equally noble revenge; with the possible exception of Kühne, who was really dismissed too superficially here also. But one little knows the egoism of our literature if one expects any such thing. It was most significant that the Telegraph in its literary share-list took each writer's...

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[ON ANASTASIUS GRUN]

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pp. 94-94

In connection with Anastasius Gain's application for the post of chamberlain, one is involuntarily reminded of the verses he published two years ago in the Elegante.a The poem was entitled Apostasie and concluded: God's will, you'll know how well I fare By this flag overhead. God's...

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LANDSCAPES

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pp. 95-101

Hellas had the good fortune of seeing the nature of her landscape brought to consciousness in the religion of her inhabitants. Hellas is a land of pantheism; all her landscapes are — or, at least, were — embraced in a harmonious framework. And yet every tree, every fountain, every mountain thrusts itself too much in the foreground, and her sky is far too blue, her sun far too radiant, her sea far too magnificent, for them to be content with the laconic spiritualisation...

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[REPORTS FROM BREMEN]

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pp. 102-106

As far as I know, no periodical of any note has a permanent correspondent in Bremen, and it could easily be concluded from this consensus gentiuma that there is nothing to write about from here. But that is not the case; for have we not a theatre, which only recently had in succession Agnese Schebest, Caroline Bauer, Tichatscheck, and Mme Schröder-Devrient performing as visiting stars, and whose...

AN EVENING

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pp. 107-111

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[REPORTS FROM BREMEN]

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pp. 112-120

The Roland was due to leave at six o'clock in the morning. I stood leaning against the wheel-house and looked for familiar faces in the throng of people pushing to get on board the steamer. For today a Sunday outing to Bremerhaven had been arranged, and at reduced prices, so everybody took the opportunity to get a little nearer to the sea and to look at some big ships. I thought it strange that the craze for profit, which otherwise continually serves the monied...

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[TWO SERMONS BY F. W. KRUMMACHER]

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pp. 121-122

We have before us the two sermons which caused the otherwise so pious people of Bremen to prohibit the Elberfeld zealot, J. W. Krummacher, from further officiating by invitation in the Church of St. Ansgarius. If the ordinary sermon in which God is spoken of only as the Father of the World or the Highest Being generally sounds very watery, the text of these orations by Krummacher is lye, caustic, even aqua...

ON THE DEATH OF IMMERMANN

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pp. 123-125

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[REPORTS FROM BREMEN]

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pp. 126-130

At last once again a topic which extends beyond tea-party gossip, which so excites the entire public of our Free State that everyone takes sides either for or against, and which gives food for thought even to the more serious-minded. The thunderstorm in the sky of our age has struck even in Bremen, the fight for a freer or narrower conception of Christianity has been kindled even here, in the capital of North-German fundamentalism; the voices which were...

ST. HELENA

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pp. 131-131

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SIEGFRIED'S NATIVE TOWN

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pp. 132-136

The Rhine should not be visited only above Cologne, and young Germans particularly should not imitate the travelling John Bull who sits bored in the saloon of the steamer from Rotterdam to Cologne and only comes up on deck here because it is the beginning of his panorama of the Rhine from Cologne to Mainz, or his Guide for Travellers on the Rhine.a Young Germans should choose a seldom visited place...

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ERNST MORITZ ARNDT

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pp. 137-150

Like the faithful Eckart of the legend, old Arndt stands on the Rhine and warns the youth of Germany, who for many years now have been gazing across to the French Venusberg and the - seductive, passionate maidens, the ideas," that beckon from its pinnacles. But the wild youths do not heed the old hero and storm across, and not...

NIGHT RIDE

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pp. 151-152

THE EMPEROR'S PROCESSION

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pp. 153-154

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[REPORTS FROM BREMEN]

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pp. 155-160

With the old year the records of our ecclesiastical controversy may be more or less closed. At least, any future polemical treatises can now no longer count on the public interest which the earlier ones enjoyed; it will not happen again that several editions are sold out in a week. And yet this kind of controversy depends mainly on...

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IMMERMANN'S MEMORABILIEN

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pp. 161-169

The news of Immermann's death was a hard blow for us Rhinelanders, not only because of the poetical but also because of the personal significance of this man, although the latter, even more than the former, was only just beginning to develop. He stood in a special relationship to the younger literary forces which have lately emerged on the Rhine and in Westphalia; for in respect of literature Westphalia and the Lower Rhine belong together, however...

WANDERINGS IN LOMBARDY

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pp. 170-180

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SCHELLING ON HEGEL

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pp. 181-188

Ask anybody in Berlin today on what field the battle for dominion over German public opinion in politics and religion, that is, over Germany itself, is being fought, and if he has any idea of the power of the mind over the world he will reply that this battlefield is the University, in particular Lecture-hall No. 6, where Schelling is giving his lectures on the philosophy of revelation. For at the moment all the separate oppositions which contend with Hegel's philosophy...

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SCHELLING AND REVELATION

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pp. 189-240

For a decade there hung on the mountains of South Germany a thundercloud which gathered in ever darker menace against North-German philosophy. Schelling appeared again in Munich; it was understood that his new system was approaching completion and would oppose the domination of the Hegelian school. He himself spoke out resolutely against that school, and its other opponents, when all arguments had to give way before its conquering might,...

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SCHELLING, PHILOSOPHER IN CHRIST, OR THE TRANSFIGURATION OF WORLDLY WISDOM

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pp. 241-264

For a decade there hung on the mountains of South Germany a thundercloud which gathered in ever darker menace against North-German philosophy. Schelling appeared again in Munich; it was understood that his new system was approaching completion and would oppose the domination of the Hegelian school. He himself spoke out resolutely against that school, and its other opponents, when all arguments had to give way before its conquering might,...

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NORTH- AND SOUTH-GERMAN LIBERALISM

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pp. 265-267

Berlin, March. Until quite recently the south of our Fatherland was thought to be the only part of it capable of strong political convictions; Baden, Württemberg and Rhenish Bavaria seemed to be the only three altars on which could be kindled the fire of the only patriotism worthy of the name, independent patriotism. The north seemed to have sunk back into inert indifference, a limp, if not servile, torpor...

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DIARY OF A GUEST STUDENT

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pp. 268-273

In a city like Berlin a stranger would be committing a real crime against himself and against good taste if he did not inspect all the sights. Yet the most remarkable thing in Berlin, that which distinguishes the Prussian capital above all others, remains all too often unnoticed by him; I am speaking of the University. I do not mean the imposing...

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RHENISH FESTIVALS

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pp. 274-276

Berlin, May 6. There are certain times of the year when the Rhinelander gadding about abroad is seized by a very special longing for his beautiful homeland. This longing comes particularly in spring, around Whitsun, the time of the Rhenish music festival, and is a really dreadful feeling. Now, he knows it only too well, everything on the Rhine is in bud; the transparent waves of the river ripple in the spring breeze, nature puts on its Sunday best, and at...

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MARGINALIA TO TEXTS OF OUR TIME

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pp. 277-280

It is now several years since Königsberg in Prussia acquired an importance which must be gratifying to all Germany. Formally excluded from Germany by the Federal Act,138 the German element there has rallied its strength and claims to be recognised as German and respected as Germany's representative vis-à-vis the barbarism of the...

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[POLEMIC AGAINST LEO]

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pp. 281-283

From the Hasenheide, May. What Hegelian philosophy, according to the enlightened judgment of the Literarische Zeitung, has been unable to achieve, namely, construct a system of natural sciences based upon its principles, the Evangelische Kirchen-Zeitung is now undertaking most successfully from its standpoint. On the occasion of a book by Professor...

ALEXANDER JUNG, "LECTURES ON MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE

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pp. 284-297

PARTICIPATION IN THE DEBATES OF THE BADEN CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES

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pp. 298-299

THE LIBERALISM OF THE SPENERSCHE ZEITUNG

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pp. 300-301

THE END OF THE CRIMINALIST ISCHE ZEITUNG

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pp. 302-303

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ON THE CRITIQUE OF THE PRUSSIAN PRESS LAWS

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pp. 304-312

Berlin, June. Two ways are open to the Prussian for the publication of his thoughts. He can either have them printed in his own country, in which case he has to submit to the domestic censorship; or, should he meet with objections here, outside the frontiers of his own state he can still either place himself under the censorship of another state in the Confederation or take advantage of press freedom in foreign countries. In any case the state retains the right to take repressive measures against possible breaches of the law...

THE INSOLENTLY THREATENED YET MIRACULOUSLY RESCUED BIBLE OR:THE TRIUMPH OF FAITH

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pp. 313-351

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[F. W. ANDREA AND THE HIGH NOBILITY OF GERMANY]

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pp. 352-352

I will not fail to draw the attention of the Catholic nobly-born members of the knighthood to a poem which, though written by a commoner, is perhaps for this very reason the more worthy of being preserved as a precious pearl, as a due tribute of bourgeois humility. In the year of grace eighteen hundred and forty-two a booklet appeared in Erfurt published by F. W. Otto: Das Wissenswiirdigste der Heraldik...

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[BERLIN MISCELLANY]

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pp. 353-354

Berlin, August 19. I am writing to you today to report that there is really nothing to report from here. Heaven knows, it is now the silly season or gherkin time, as they say here. Nothing is happening, absolutely nothing! The Union of the Historical Christ gives no more signs of life than the Union of the Free 167; although officially it exists, no student really knows where it exists or who belongs to it...

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CENTRALISATION AND FREEDOM

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pp. 355-359

At first sight it seems incomprehensible that in France a ministry like Guizot's could last so long, that indeed it could come to power at all. Confronted by a Chamber with full power tô appoint and remove ministers, by a free and influential press, by the freest institutions in Europe, by a concentrated public opinion strongly opposed to him, Guizot, Minister de l'étranger, has withstood this for almost two...

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FREDERICK WILLIAM IV,KING OF PRUSSIA

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pp. 360-367

Among the European sovereigns whose personality attracts attention also outside their own country there are four of special interest: Nicholas of Russia, because of the directness and unconcealed frankness with which he strives towards despotism; Louts Philippe, who can be regarded as the Machiavelli of our time; Victoria of England, the perfect model of a constitutional queen;...

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THE ENGLISH VIEW OF THE INTERNAL CRISES

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pp. 368-369

London, November 29. If one engages for a time in a quiet study of English conditions, if one comes to understand clearly the weak foundation on which the entire artificial edifice of England's social and political well-being rests, and then suddenly finds oneself amidst the hustle and bustle of English life, one is astonished at the remarkable calm and confidence with which everyone here looks to the future..

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THE INTERNAL CRISES

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pp. 370-374

London, November 30. Is a revolution in England possible or even probable? This is the question on which the future of England depends. Put it to an Englishman and he will give you a thousand excellent reasons to prove that there can be no question at all of a revolution. He will tell you that at the moment certainly England is in a critical situation, but thanks to her wealth, her industry and her institutions, she has the ways and means to extricate herself without...

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THE POSITION OF THE POLITICAL PARTIES

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pp. 375-377

From Lancashire, December 19. Complicated as the present situation in England seems if one sticks, as the Englishman does, to what is most immediate and close at hand, the external practical aspect, it is nevertheless simple if one reduces externals to the underlying content. In England there exist only three parties of any importance: the landed aristocracy, the moneyed aristocracy, and radical democracy...

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THE CONDITIONOF THE WORKING CLASS IN ENGLAND

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pp. 378-379

From Lancashire, December 22. The end of the existing Corn Laws is rapidly approaching. The people are in a real fury about the "corn tax", and no matter what the Tories do, they cannot withstand the pressure of the exasperated masses. Sir Robert Peel has prorogued Parliament until February 2 — six weeks for the opposition to fan the anger still more. When the new session opens, Peel will have...

THE CORN LAWS

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pp. 380-382

LETTERS August 1838-August 1842

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1 8 3 8

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pp. 385-404

Dear Marie, As soon as I saw your letter I realised at once that it was from you although I don't know your handwriting. Because the letter is just like you — written in a terrible hurry, everything in a lovely confusion, sermons that are not a bit seriously meant: how are you, your health, news about Emilchena and Adelinchen,b accidents, all mixed...

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18 3 9

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pp. 405-493

Dear Marie, I hope you have now had that tooth extracted or that it was not necessary.— The riddle about the pond is very nice but you ought to be able to solve it yourself. Listen, composing is hard work; you have to pay attention to so many things — the harmony of the chords and the right progression, and that gives a lot of trouble. I'll see if I can't send you something again next time. I am now working on another...

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1 8 4 0

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pp. 494-522

Dear Herr Schücking, Once again my warmest thanks for your kindly reception and for the beautiful souvenir from Münster230! I read it through in Osnabrück at one sitting with great enjoyment, and I envy the poet3 for her original and tender images of nature, the many hidden splendours, the kinship with Byron, which you also, if I am not mistaken, stressed...

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184 1

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pp. 523-535

Dear Marie, This time you shall get a really heavy letter. At first I even wanted to write to you on cardboard so that you would have to fork out quite a sum for postal charges, but unfortunately I could not get a piece with a smooth surface and so I must write on the heaviest paper to be found...

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1 8 4 2

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pp. 536-550

Your letter reminded me, to my enormous shame, how much I have neglected my duty to write to you. It was really disgraceful of me and there is no excuse whatever for this crime. So I'm setting to work immediately and replying to your nice letter which I received the day before yesterday. I had a dose of cannon fever yesterday. What happened was this: I was very unwell and felt really weak the whole...

EARLY LITERARYEXPERIMENTS(1833-1837)

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TO MY GRANDFATHER

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pp. 553-553

O you dear Grandfather, who always treat us so kindly, Always helping us when our work isn't going so smoothly, While you were here, you told me many a beautiful story Of Cercyon and Theseus, and Argus the hundred-eyed monster, The Minotaur, Ariadne, and Aegeus drowned in the ocean, The Golden Fleece, the Argonauts and Jason defiant,247 Mighty Hercules...

POEM, 1836

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pp. 554-554

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POEM Probably Written Early in 1837

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pp. 555-556

On a winter's morning in the year 1820 a ship was on the point of setting sail from the island of Kuluri, Salamis of old and scene of Athenian valour. It was a Greek merchant vessel which with its large crew had brought to Athens mastic, gum arabic and the like, but more especially Damascus blades, cedar-wood and fine cloths from Asia. Ashore all was activity. The captain was moving among the sailors at their...

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[A PIRATE TALE]

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pp. 557-571

On a winter's morning in the year 1820 a ship was on the point of setting sail from the island of Kuluri, Salamis of old and scene of Athenian valour. It was a Greek merchant vessel which with its large crew had brought to Athens mastic, gum arabic and the like, but more especially Damascus blades, cedar-wood and fine cloths from Asia. Ashore all was activity. The captain was moving among the sailors at their...

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THE SINGLE COMBAT OF ETEOCLESAND POLYNICES

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pp. 572-574

Why do the companies of the Greeks and their swift horses march through the great city of the mighty sons of Gadmus? And why throughout the plain do men with white shields move in polished arms around the long walls? There comes against the city of the stout son of Agenor an army of Argive men for a mighty prize, there come the leaders of the Danaans, bringing war to Thebes, Tydeus, Capaneus and Parthenopaeus, King Amphiaraus...

APPENDICES

BIRTH CERTIFICATE OF FRIEDRICH ENGELS

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pp. 577-577

FRIEDRICH ENGELS SENIORT O KARL SNETHLAGE

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pp. 578-579

BAPTISM CERTIFICATE OF FRIEDRICH ENGELS

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pp. 580-580

FRIEDRICH ENGELS SENIOR TO HIS WIFE ELISE

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pp. 581-583

SCHOOL-LEAVING REFERENCE 250 FOR PRIMA 3 PUPIL FRIEDRICH ENGELS

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pp. 584-585

FRIEDRICH ENGELS SENIORTO KARL SNETHLAGE

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pp. 586-587

CERTIFICATE OF CONDUCT FOR THE ONE-YEAR VOLUNTEER FRIEDRICH ENGELS

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pp. 588-588

NOTES AND INDEXES

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pp. 589-679