Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-xx

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Preface

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pp. xxi-xxiv

...college campuses and among general readers. A knowledge of our own ethnic background as well as of other traditions broadens our horizons and helps us understand ourselves and the world we live in. This book surveys the folk...

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Introduction

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pp. 3-38

...The Finns differ from the rest of the Scandinavians in ethnic background and language, but Finland was ruled by Sweden until 1809, and social and cultural ties between the Finns and their neighbors to the west have remained...

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PART I: The Human Soul

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pp. 39-82

...acquired overriding Christian meanings. According to Saint Paul, the soul is primarily a spiritual element identified with the godhead and therefore dichotomous to the physical self. The term hug, by contrast, does not imply any such meanings...

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PART II: The Dead and the Living

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pp. 83-126

...neighborliness to outright hostility. By and large, however, fear of the dead dominates this tradition. Continued contact most often implied some unfinished business between the dead and the living, a debt not paid, a crime not...

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PART III: Healers and Wise Folk

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pp. 127-156

...They applied their magical skills to a variety of tasks, from healing humans and animals to ridding the house of mice and other pests, quenching fire, opening...

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PART IV: Witchcraft

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pp. 157-200

...practitioners of magic, notably shape changing, magic flight, and the use of spells to control the elements and conjure the dead. A specially potent and malevolent...

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PART V: The Invisible Folk

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pp. 201-276

...Although they are invisible, from time to time they appear to ordinary people, and "when they do, they are in human shape. The "invisible folk" constitute quite...

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PART VI: The Devil

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pp. 277-296

...and body in the next. A minister, by contrast, could make use of Satan's power with impunity. At the Black School at Wittenberg he acquired knowledge of the Black Book. In many jocular legends, the Devil appears as the fool duped by the minister. But there are also numerous legends...

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PART VII: Trolls and Giants

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pp. 297-314

...of the gods and the human community. With the introduction of Christianity, they became enemies of the church as well. In more recent folk tradition, the giants usually appear as imaginary figures rather than as preternatural...

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PART VIII: Buried Treasure

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pp. 315-326

...find the hidden wealth protected by preternatural beings, believed to be the ghost of the original owner or perhaps the revenant of an animal sacrificed at the time of burial. Often the treasure was bound by various spells. It could be...

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PART IX: History as Seen from the Village

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pp. 327-374

...most catastrophic among them, the so-called Black Death (fourteenth century), is remembered in the legends. By and large, historical legends reflect the same worldview depicted in other legends, and they contain many supranormal...

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PART X: Urban Folklore Today

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pp. 375-394

...basically rural society into an urban one. Traditional forms of folk belief and oral literature were at least in part replaced by new ones. But legends reflecting the worldview and concerns of contemporary society continue to flourish...

Bibliography

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pp. 395-418

Index

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pp. 419-430