Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-xii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xiv

...Major support for the Center Workshop on Implications of the Cognitive Sciences for the Philosophy of Science was provided by the National Science Foundation through its program in History and Philosophy of Science. Additional funding...

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Introduction: Cognitive Models of Science

Ronald N. Giere

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pp. xv-xxviii

...idea behind the workshop was that the cognitive sciences have reached a sufficient state of maturity that they can now provide a valuable resource for philosophers of science who are developing general theories of science as a human...

PART I: MODELS FROM COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

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How Do Scientists Think? Capturing the Dynamics of Conceptual Change in Science

Nancy J. Nersessian

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pp. 3-44

...The young Clerk Maxwell is sitting in a garden deep in thought. On the table before him there is a sheet of paper on which he sketches various pictures of lines and circles and writes equations...

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The Procedural Turn; or, Why Do Thought Experiments Work?

David Gooding

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pp. 45-76

...The new naturalism in science studies recognizes that people learn by active intervention in a world of objects and other people. Philosophy of science lacks resources to deal with new notions of reasoning and empirical access...

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Serial and Parallel Processing in Scientific Discovery

Ryan D. Tweney

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pp. 77-88

...The very existence of this book suggests that the "cognitive turn" in the philosophy of science is already at an advanced stage. Indeed, not since the seminal work...

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The Origin and Evolution of Everyday Concepts

Susan Carey

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pp. 89-128

...The contributors to this volume were charged to explore how research in cognitive science bears on issues discussed in the literature on the philosophy of science. Most took this as a challenge to show how results from cognitive psychology...

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Conceptual Change within and across Ontological Categories: Examples from Learning and Discovery in Science

Michelene T.H.Chi

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pp. 129-186

...The simple working definition adopted in this essay for conceptual change is that it refers primarily to the notion of how a concept can change its meaning. Since a difference in meaning is difficult to define, one can think of it as a change...

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Information, Observation, and Measurement from the Viewpoint of a Cognitive Philosophy of Science

Richard E. Grandy

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pp. 187-206

...The cognitive revolution in philosophy of science is well under way, and one point of this volume is to plan an agenda for the future. I believe that part of that agenda should...

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Foundationalism Naturalized

C. Wade Savage

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pp. 207-236

...traditional versions of this view are virtually without defenders. It is ironic that many of the critics — notably Quine (1951, 1969) — have argued that epistemology should be naturalized and made scientific; for, as this essay will contend...

PART II: MODELS FROM ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

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The Airplane and the Logic of Invention

Gary Bradshaw

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pp. 239-250

...A major concern in philosophy of science has been to provide norms to scientists that will assist them in their work. Ideally guidance would be provided at every...

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Strategies for Anomaly Resolution

Lindley Darden

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pp. 251-273

...Understanding the growth of scientific knowledge has been one of the major tasks in philosophy of science in the last thirty years. No successful general model of scientific change has been found; attempts were made by, for example, Kuhn...

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Copernicus, Ptolemy, and Explanatory Coherence

Greg Nowak and Paul Thagard

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pp. 274-309

...We apply in this essay a computational theory of explanatory coherence to an important case in the history of astronomy. The theory has been implemented in a connectionist computer program...

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Understanding Scientific Controversies from a Computational Perspective: The Case of Latent Learning

Eric G. Freedman

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pp. 310-338

...sociology of scientific knowledge that scientific discoveries occur within a social context. While the computational approach to science may not refute the strong programme, it does serve to elucidate the role of cognitive processes in...

PART III: MODELS FROM NEUROSCIENCE

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A Deeper Unity: Some Feyerabendian Themes in Neurocomputational Form

Paul M. Churchland

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pp. 341-364

...By the late 1960s, every good materialist expected that epistemological theory would one day make explanatory contact, perhaps even a reductive contact, with a proper theory of brain function. Not even the most optimistic of us, however...

PART IV: BETWEEN LOGIC AND SOCIOLOGY

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Answers to Philosophical and Sociological Uses of Psychologism in Science Studies: A Behavioral Psychology of Science

Arthur C. Houts and C. Keith Haddock

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pp. 367-399

...One major task for psychologists interested in developing the psychology of science is to engage in fruitful dialogue and debate with others in the broad field of science studies (Houts 1989). For at least the last two decades, this interdisciplinary field has been...

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Simulating Social Epistemology: Experimental and Computational Approaches

Michael E. Gorman

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pp. 400-426

...Philosophers of science have made a bewildering variety of recommendations concerning how scientists ought to behave. Popper (1972), for example, tells them to falsify; Kuhn (1970) says that is good advice only during a crisis, but that...

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Epistemology Radically Naturalized: Recovering the Normative, the Experimental, and the Social

Steve Fuller

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pp. 427-460

...I argue that a radically naturalized study of knowledge would apply the methods and findings of psychology and the social sciences to itself. The results would make epistemology more robustly normative, experimental, and social...

PART V: CRITIQUE AND REPLIES

CRITIQUE

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pp. 463-464

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Invasion of the Mind Snatchers

Clark Glymour

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pp. 465-472

...Ten years ago I hoped, even expected, that the computational revolution would revive a dying enterprise, philosophy of science, and make it more intelligent and rigorous and insightful and interesting. This book and the recent work that...

REPLIES TO GLYMOUR

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pp. 473-474

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Reconceiving Cognition

Paul M. Churchland

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pp. 475-480

...I think Glymour is right to be upset. The old epistemological ways are dying — cause enough for distress. Worse, their prospective replacements are still rag-tag, unpolished, and strange. Moreover, there is an unsettling uncertainty...

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What the Cognitive Study of Science Is Not

Ronald N. Giere

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pp. 481-484

...approaches. I reject philosophical attempts to explain science as the result of applying categorical principles of rationality, whether these be explicated in terms of formal logic, probability, or historical progress. For me, the only form of rationality...

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Computing Coherence

Paul Thagard

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pp. 485-488

...The purpose of this note is to remedy some of Clark Glymour's (this volume) misconceptions about explanatory coherence and ECHO. After briefly responding to Glymour's challenges concerning the normativeness and necessity of ECHO and the nature of analogy...

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Contributors

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pp. 489-492

...is Assistant Professor at the University of Colorado. Along with Herbert Simon, Pat Langley, and Jan Zytkow, Bradshaw worked to develop computational models of scientific discovery. He is currently exploring the process of invention of...

Index of Authors

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pp. 493-500

Index of Subjects

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pp. 501-508