Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-xii

Is it possible to present a selection of texts that documents a modern nation's psyche and collective history? This collection of essays, writings, and speeches sets out to answer this question by marking a series of pivotal moments in twentieth-century Chinese textual history. ...

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1. Cultural Reform

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pp. 1-14

The centrality of literature and literary reform to China's revolution in the early twentieth century might surprise outsiders. No matter how much the reformers sought to model themselves on the West, this aspect of cultural remaking made theirs a peculiarly Chinese revolution. ...

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2. Social Reform

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pp. 15-30

The impact of the women's periodical press in Shanghai in the early twentieth century stems from three interlocking revolutions in Chinese society: technological, gender and political. Debates on women's role in society did not spring into the magazine pages from nowhere: women and their male advisors had been contemplating for decades how "new" or "modern" women should behave. ...

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3. Reform and Revolution

Sun Yat-sen

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pp. 31-42

Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian, Sun Zhongshan, 1866-1925) was one of the most prolific writers and thinkers of the first decades of the twentieth century. He was the founder and leading voice of a succession of revolutionary groups, whose aims evolved from reform and self-strengthening to a platform of "driving out the barbarian Manchus, restoring China to the Chinese, and creating a republic." ...

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4. Rectification

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pp. 43-57

The early 1940s was a period of intense and sustained challenge for the Chinese Communist Party and its fledgling government in Yan' an. To the south, it was blockaded by the Nationalists, while eastward the Japanese threatened, squeezing resources and cutting off access routes. At the same time, the "Yan'an way" was at the peak of its persuasive powers, ...

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5. Cultural Policy in the People's Republic

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pp. 58-71

Mao Zedong gave two keynote speeches at the Yan'an Forum on Art and Literature in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) stronghold, or base area, in May 1942. The first speech opened the conference, and the second concluded it. The conference itself called for "an exchange of opinions" among party members and intellectuals living in the base area on the relationships between literature, art, and revolution. ...

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6. Total Reform

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pp. 72-86

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (文华大格明 Wenhua Da Geming, 文革 Wenge) provokes some of the strongest images and feelings of any period in twentieth-century Chinese history: the hysterical enthusiasm of thousands of students in army green at mass rallies in Tiananmen Square, young people brandishing the Little Red Book of Mao Zedong Thought, ...

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7. The Unreformed

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pp. 87-100

Commonly circulated cliches have it that the Cultural Revolution was a period of rigid intellectual orthodoxy. Millions were entranced by the dogma of the day; and for those who were not, dissent was simply too dangerous to countenance. Recent research, however, suggests that thinking against the grain was far more plentiful than was once acknowledged. ...

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8. Tiananmen, 1989

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pp. 101-117

Although the Beijing Olympics went some way to re-brand its image, Tiananmen Square has been synonymous throughout the last two decades with brutal state oppression. Yet the very fact of this oppression remains contested, and the names given to the events of June 1989 reveal much about the standpoints of their speakers: ...

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9. The 1980s Enlightenment

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pp. 118-131

1988 was a Dragon Year, the temporal home of disaster in Chinese superstition. True to form, tensions ran high throughout the year, as bad portents proliferated and apprehension grew that the reform process was beginning to stall. Inflation, corruption, nepotism, and a volatile economy were spreading panic across China's cities, ...

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10. Chinese Neo-Nationalism

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pp. 132-146

China Can Say No is the seminal text of popular Chinese nationalism in the 1990s. Published in 1996, during the immediate aftermath of the military confrontation between China and the United States in the Taiwan Strait, the 130,000 copies of its first print run sold out in weeks. ...

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11. The Emergence of Civil Society

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pp. 147-158

The origins of the term "civil society" are famously complex, just as definitions of it remain elusive. Thinkers as diverse as Adam Ferguson, Hegel, Alexis de Tocqueville, and Jürgen Habermas have contributed to its evolution in philosophy from the eighteenth century onward, and the concept comes with a heavy freight of hope, idealism, and moral expectation. ...

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12. The New Left and the Critique of Consumerism

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pp. 159-172

Dai Jinhua 戴锦华 (1959-) is a professor at Peking University, and one of China's leading cultural theorists. Her scholarship traverses film studies, feminist Marxism, and the workings of mass culture, and her writings have won her audiences both at home and in the international academic community. ...

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13. Chinese Intellectuals and Christianity

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pp. 173-186

When the academic and journalist Ian Buruma went to investigate the fate, ten years on, of the four writers of the documentary River Elegy (河 殇 Heshang) who had escaped from China, he was curious to find out why three had turned to Christianity.1 The link between political crises and religious zeal interested Buruma, ...

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14. Taiwanese Identity

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pp. 187-199

The last two decades have witnessed an extraordinary surge of interest in issues of identity across the spectrum of Taiwanese society. Animating not only political and social life, but also every aspect of culture from literature and film to art and museum studies, the vogue for identity has inspired reams of commentary, both inside and outside Taiwan. ...

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15. Contemporary Sino-Japanese Relations

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pp. 200-214

Throughout history, China and Japan have faced each other in a range of postures: teacher/pupil, victor/vanquished, partner/rival. From the earliest imperial embassies dispatched by Japan to learn about Chinese culture, to the Sino-Japanese War of 1895, when these roles were suddenly switched and Japan taught China the art of modern warfare; ...

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16. China's Peaceful Rise

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pp. 215-231

Some time in the late 1990s, the world began to wake up to China's burgeoning economic power. The China that Western media had always portrayed as a communist state and an infringer of human rights began, article by article, news item by news item, to be viewed as a powerful economic entity that was rapidly climbing the world rankings. ...