Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

...The so-called welfare state emerged in a number of industrialized countries after the First World War. It was seen as a sort of compromise between capitalism and socialism. The aim was to abolish injustices and hardships to the...

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Why Scandinavia?

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pp. 3-14

...When the pugnacious chairman of the Danish Federation of Labor, Thomas Nielsen, retired at the age of sixty-five in February 1982, he stated in a newspaper interview that he "belonged to a victorious generation. . . . What we didn't...

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Traditions and Roots

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pp. 15-40

...It is not necessary to write an economic and social history of the Nordic countries in order to explain their growth and development as "welfare states." However, some salient facts of their historical development should be emphasized, particularly...

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Ideals of the Welfare State

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pp. 41-52

...The two hundred years from the eighteenth to the twentieth century are unique in the history of humanity. In the Western world at least, there was constant material progress, and apparently the sky, or indeed outer space, was the limit...

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Social Security and Social Engineering

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pp. 53-88

...The social security systems of the Nordic countries are not identical. Denmark, as has already been pointed out, was the pioneer, and especially in the early stages the solutions chosen there were sometimes copied by others. But already...

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A New Economic Order?

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pp. 89-126

...In many respects, the economic problems facing Scandinavian countries today are the same as those of most other industrialized countries. These problems are largely caused by an unwarranted expectation of continued material...

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Governing the Welfare State

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pp. 127-156

...The Scandinavian welfare states are the offspring of political democracy. There was considerable welfare of a paternalistic type before the advent of democracy, and civil rights were comparatively well protected long before...

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Serpents in Paradise

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pp. 157-192

...Critics of the welfare state are only too happy to blame all the social ills of Scandinavian and similar societies on their new approach to relations between society and individuals. This is understandable in view of the fact that...

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Politics and Issues

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pp. 193-226

...In an earlier chapter I briefly described the constitutional structure of the Nordic countries. There can be no doubt that this structure had become not only much more democratic but also more conducive to compromise at about...

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Welfare and Equality

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pp. 227-256

...In 1969, Alva Myrdal presented a report on "equality" to the national congress of the Swedish Social Democratic party. It was an elaboration of ideas that she had outlined in a speech a few years earlier. The report was unanimously...

Bibliography

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pp. 257-264

Index

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pp. 265-273