Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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CONTENTS

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p. ix

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. xi-xvi

For a long time, I have imagined writing these acknowledgments. I have wondered what shape they would take and how I would find a way to thank the many institutions and people who have both facilitated my work and enriched my life. A refrain from Alfred Lord Tennyson’s “Ulysses” kept coming back to me: “I am a part of all that I have met.” While I have not in the official sense “met” these granting entities that have supported my work both before...

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INTRODUCTION

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pp. xvii-xxxi

Almost imperceptible but most assuredly there, a thinned wash of grayish paint with a scattering of darker dots lies across the face of the woman in the foreground of Gustave Caillebotte’s Paris Street: Rainy Day, of 1877 (Figure 1). She and her companion establish the right side of the picture plane, the rest of which is interposed by a diffusion of people who make their ways across cobblestone boulevards lined with Haussmannized...

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1. PATHOLOGIZING THE SECOND EMPIRE CITY

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pp. 34-66

The foreground of a photograph taken by the Studio of Delmaet and Durandelle sometime in 1867 or 1868, during the construction of l’avenue de l’Opéra, is filled with rubble and dust (Figure 3). This picture documents a particular moment in Paris’s pathology, a moment characterized by cultural chaos, disorder, and change. Garnier’s unfinished Opera House sits just shy of the center...

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2. MAKING UP THE SURFACE

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pp. 67-94

Not only was the late nineteenth-century French face connected to a discourse of urban pathology and visual inhibition, but also it was a locus of attention for both textual and visual explorations of aging and ideals of beauty. The face could register a woman’s age more readily than could her body, which would have been corseted, clothed, hidden, smoothed over, and perfected.1 Photographs...

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3. UNMASKING MANET'S MORISOT, OR VEILING SUBJECTIVITY

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pp. 95-126

As I argued in chapter 2, the postulates of fashion and cosmetics in late nineteenth-century Parisian culture conspired to fabricate an ideal bourgeois face, a face that foregrounded its surface as simultaneously smooth and highly artificial. Covered by the thinnest layer of rice powder and topped off with a veil, this face could appear to be ageless, even, and regular, not lined and variable. The creation of the impression of youth...

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4. THE OTHER SIDE OF THE VEIL

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pp. 127-174

My focus thus far has been on the French veil and its specific relationship to various social, historical, and cultural formations in Paris during the Second Empire and into the beginning of the Third Republic. The veil— as object, metaphor, and visual representation—signified the complexity of the position of the proper woman within the urban and, in the case of Manet’s representations...

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EPILOGUE

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pp. 175-179

The veil did not, of course, cease to be fashionable after 1889. Indeed, its popularity continued well into the midtwentieth century in Europe and America. Fashion photography of the 1950s was especially attracted to the veil, for it was already deeply invested in notions of high style and an ideal of feminine beauty. For example, the photographer Irving Penn often depicted models wearing veils when he or the designer...

NOTES

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pp. 180-205

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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pp. 206-233

INDEX

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pp. 234-249