Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Editor's Foreword

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pp. vii-x

The expansion of Europe since the thirteenth century has had profound influences on peoples throughout the world. Encircling the globe, the expansion changed men's lives and goals and became one of the decisive movements in the history of mankind. ...

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Preface

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pp. xi-xii

Richard Pares wrote in 1937 that "the most important thing in the history of an empire is the history of its mother-country."1 That view seems a little old-fashioned today. Four centuries of Europe's primacy over the rest of the world have not only ended but been seen to have ended. ...

Contents

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pp. xiii-xiv

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Chapter 1. Probes

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pp. 3-34

The exploration of the Atlantic Ocean in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries was the work of southern Europeans: of Portuguese captains like Gil Eanes, Bartholomeu Dias, and Pedro Cabral, and of professional Italian pilots like Cadamosto, Columbus, Cabot, Vespucci, and Verrazano. ...

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Chapter 2. Planting

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pp. 35-62

About 1600 peace overtook Europe. France, Spain, and England came under new rulers. Philip II made the Treaty of Vervins with France in 1598 and died a few weeks later. Henry IV put an end to the French Wars of Religion, extending toleration to the Huguenots in the Edict of Nantes (1598). ...

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Chapter 3. People

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pp. 63-140

By about 1660, when it was clear that the Europeans had come to stay, the North American colonies of England and the Netherlands contained between 60,000 and 70,000 people, exclusive of Indians who were already manifesting a disposition to retreat from the jurisdiction of the whites. ...

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Chapter 4. Products

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pp. 141-196

Heading the list of products drawn by Europe from America in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries must come silver and gold: silver from Spanish Mexico and Peru, gold from Portuguese Brazil, permeating and deeply affecting the European economy as well as making possible Europe's trade with the East. ...

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Chapter 5. Government

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pp. 197-245

Most Europeans crossed the Atlantic to find work or make a fortune. Some, a minority, did so in order to escape from an oppressive religious establishment. Political freedom, in the secular sense, was not an important objective. Some French emigrants may have been influenced by heavy taxes at home; ...

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Chapter 6. Impact

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pp. 246-286

The Discoveries confronted Europeans with situations for which they were by no means fully prepared. These situations arose from contact not merely with people of different races and colors but with people whose behavior and beliefs were unrecognizable and sometimes almost indescribable in European terms. ...

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Chapter 7. Repercussions

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pp. 287-327

The Discoveries brought about a revision of European international relations by giving kings and ministers new targets to aim at and, in the long run, by changing the balance of power. At the end of the fifteenth century some such revision was overdue. Renaissance diplomacy had become stylized. ...

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Epilogue

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pp. 328-332

So much was started in the North Atlantic in the seventeenth century that it is easy to trap oneself into filing inflated claims for the relevance of those pioneering times to all that came afterwards, forgetting the failures, the blind alleys, and the things that did not happen. ...

Bibliographical Note

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pp. 333-350

Index

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pp. 351-366