Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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FOREWORD

RUSSELL A. STEVENSON

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pp. iii-iv

This is a companion volume to Stevenson and Vaile's Balancing the Economie, Controls. Each book is an overview of research studies conducted by the Employment Stabilization Research Institute. Balancing the Economic Controls is devoted to a presentation of the economic investigations of the Institute, whereas this volume unfolds the story of results achieved chiefly through case studies of men and women....

CONTENTS

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p. v

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I. INTRODUCTION

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pp. 3-8

On the morning of July 8,1931, John Jones,* a thirty-seven-yearold clerk who had been unemployed since the previous September, came to the Occupational Analysis Clinic of the Employment Stabilization Research Institute of the University of Minnesota. For three hours he worked at a long series of written and performance tests that were placed before him. After lunch he was given a complete physical...

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II. TECHNIQUES AND TESTS

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pp. 9-14

Before relating the story of results obtained from analyzing the records of some eight thousand employed and unemployed persons, it will be helpful to describe for the general reader not acquainted with them the various tests and techniques utilized in studying these individuals in the Occupational Analysis Clinic. The results of the intensive interview with each person studied were recorded systematically in an eight-page Occupational History Schedule — facts...

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III. A COMPARISON OF EARLY AND LATE UNEMPLOYED WORKERS

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pp. 15-24

Unemployment is obviously a cumulative economic problem; not everyone is discharged at the same time. The labor market does not change overnight from the least possible supply of labor to the least possible demand for workers. As hard times continue, the ratio gradually shifts, until eventually the supply of workers far exceeds the demand. As the stream of unemployment steadily swells to alarming proportions....

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IV. SPECIAL TYPES OF UNEMPLOYED WORKERS

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pp. 25-41

Besides disclosing differences between early and late unemployed workers, our case histories reveal the existence of special types of unemployed persons, among others the following: casual laborers who have always been drifters, turning from one short-time job to another; non-modal workers who have never shown enough persistence in a given line of work to justify a definite occupational classification; threshold...

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V. CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS

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pp. 42-51

In Chapter III evidence was presented that indicated that early unemployed workers were poorer employment risks in their specific occupations than late unemployed workers. These group-average differences in respect to the various items studied point to a kind of natural selection or survival of the fittest in job competition. Just how far does this process of natural selection go? Are late unemployed workers as different from employed workers as they are from early unemployed...

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VI. RE-EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS

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pp. 52-60

From the extensive case records of employed and unemployed individuals studied in the Occupational Analysis Clinic, it was possible to make an analysis of the training needs of adults. This analysis is timely because of its bearing on the oft-repeated suggestion that a panacea for unemployment is additional education and training. Adult education in particular has been pointed to as the solution of the...

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VII. THE RÔLE OF EDUCATION IN OCCUPATIONAL ADJUSTMENT

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pp. 61-73

High school graduates, college graduates, even holders of the coveted Phi Beta Kappa key presented themselves at the Occupational Analysis Clinic. Their arrival at the clinic was thought at first to reflect nothing more than the fact that the depression was no respecter of persons, that high-level and low-level workers alike were being caught...

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VIII. INDIVIDUAL DIAGNOSIS IN EMPLOYMENT PRACTICE

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pp. 74-78

Up to this point we have been discussing the findings of a research undertaking. The present chapter recommends a program of individual diagnosis to be followed in the day-to-day activities of the public employment office. We begin with a brief account of the improved public employment offices developed by the Research Institute, which will give the necessary background for our description of occupational...

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Occupational Ability Patterns

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pp. 78-83

The reader has encountered this term in Chapter V. Since it played so important a part in the testing work, it may best be elaborated upon here. Such patterns provide a practical basis for using test results in a conservative occupational guidance program. They are essentially quantitatively formulated objective descriptions of a given type of work...

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The Diagnostic Approach

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pp. 83-84

Here again is a term familiar to the reader. The fact that the examiners in the testing divisions consistently adhered to clinical diagnosis as a first principle is responsible for their success with individual cases. In the same way that a physician must approach each patient with a broad knowledge of all possible methods of diagnosis and prevention or cure, the occupational examiners must have a working knowledge of many methods of diagnosis and treatment. Neither...

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Types of Service Rendered

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pp. 84-88

The term "human engineering" implies a general scientific method, or analytical approach, that is more strict than our ordinary habits of thought. We cannot be content with guesses or vague general statements; we must dig out the facts and discover the relations that actually exist between them if we are to solve problems of human adjustment. Since the experimental approach that is characteristic of all...

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IX. RESEARCH IN HUMAN ENGINEERING

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pp. 90-95

The term "human engineering" implies a general scientific method, or analytical approach, that is more strict than our ordinary habits of thought. We cannot be content with guesses or vague general statements; we must dig out the facts and discover the relations that actually exist between them if we are to solve problems of human adjustment. Since the experimental approach that is characteristic of...

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Service Research

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pp. 96-105

In the work of the public employment offices, as we pointed out earlier, it is frequently necessary to classify certain types of workers on the basis of their relative abilities. The information recorded in interviews affords little basis for discriminating between the actual skills of applicants and the skills they claim to possess. But the addition of test information to other information may equip us with the knowledge we...

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Basic Research

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pp. 105-124

The foundation upon which human engineering practices can be safely erected is to be found in continuing research programs aimed to perfect the methods we are now using. Some of the highlights of such research may be discussed here to complete the picture of modern personnel practices. Purely technical principles in test construction will lead to relatively accurate...

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X. THE COMPLETED PICTURE

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pp. 125-135

...account of what was done in one of the two main divisions (knownas Project II) of the Employment Stabilization Research Instituteof the University of Minnesota. Our sketch has grown considerablyfrom the first introductory snapshot of the problems of John Smith.forced us to cover a wide area of human and industrial activity....

PUBLICATIONS OF THE EMPLOYMENT STABILIZATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

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pp. 143-149

INDEX

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pp. 150-154