Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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p. ix

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Chapter 1. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES AND THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT

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pp. 1-5

The definition of public health usually cited by authorities is that of C. E. A. Winslow: "Public health is the science and the art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical health and efficiency through organized community efforts for the sanitation of the environment, the control of community infections, the education of the individual in principles of personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing service for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease, and the development of the social machinery which will ensure to every individual a standard...

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Chapter 2. THE UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE: ORGANIZATION AND LEGISLATION

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pp. 6-16

The National Health Assembly, called by President Truman and held in Washington, D.C., from May 1 to 4, 1948, not only pointed the way to renewed and expanded activity on behalf of public health, but also fittingly commemorated the 150th anniversary of the founding of the United States Public Health Service (PHS). The Service had its origin in an act of Congress of July 16, 1798, creating marine hospitals for the care of merchant seamen; at that time it was known as the Marine Hospital Service. Marine hospitals were established at the main seaports, and "it was natural that the hospital doctors...

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Chapter 3. THE UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE: GRANTS–IN–AID AND ADMINISTRATION

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pp. 17-51

The growth of national grants-in-aid to states for public health purposes for selected fiscal years is indicated in Table 1. Between the fiscal year 1937 and the fiscal year 1947, total general health grant payments rose from $7,765,203 to $14,033,364 (an increase of 80.7 percent), and general health payments to Minnesota advanced from $175,963 to $266,120 (an increase of 51.2 percent). Between the fiscal year 1939 and the fiscal year 1947, total venereal disease grant payments rose from $2,360,586 to $8,747,867.71 (an increase of 223.1 percent), and those to Minnesota from $42,324 to $87,823 (an increase of 107.5 percent). That the percentage increase in payments to Minnesota...

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Chapter 4. THE UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE: OTHER FISCAL PROGRAMS

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pp. 52-75

Six programs administered by the Public Health Service that have involved relations with state agencies but are not exactly similar to the grants-in-aid programs already mentioned are (1) the grants-in-aid of hospital survey and construction, (2) the grants for research, (3) the wartime grants to nursing schools, (4) the venereal disease rapid treatment center grants, (5) the wartime emergency health and sanitation program, and (6) the activities of the National Office of Vital Statistics. Only the last is directly and wholly concerned with public health as narrowly defined, although (4) and...

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Chapter 5. THE UNITED STATES CHILDREN'S BUREAU

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pp. 76-85

The United States Children's Bureau is second in importance only to the Public Health Service as a national health agency with extensive intergovernmental relations. Created by a congressional act on April 9, 1912, it was for 34 years lodged in the Department of Labor (Department of Commerce and Labor before 1913). Instead of dealing only with a function like health, the Children's Bureau is responsible for a certain category of persons—children and, to some extent, mothers. By its founding act it was directed to investigate and report upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of children...

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Chapter 6. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE AND CHILDREN'S BUREAU: CONSULTATION, ADVICE, AND OTHER NONFISCAL RELATIONS

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pp. 86-106

The three preceding chapters have been concerned mainly with the grants-in-aid administered by the Public Health Service and the Children's Bureau and with the fiscal relations involved. Inevitably, however, a good many activities have been described, or alluded to, which are not merely fiscal. To provide a more complete picture, national-state relations that are not primarily fiscal will now be discussed further, according to the type of relations, such as regulation, advice, and surveys, rather than in connection...

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Chapter 7. OTHER NATIONAL AGENCIES

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pp. 107-133

The Food and Drug Administration, given its present name in 1931, has been carrying on its law-enforcement functions under various titles since January 1, 1907, when the Federal Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 went into effect. The Administration was transferred from the Department of Agriculture to the Federal Security Agency in June 1940, under the President's Reorganization Plan No. IV of that year. The Federal Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was the basic national law providing for the regulation of the purity and potency of foods and drugs and of labeling practices, and it was passed because...

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Chapter 8. MINNESOTA STATE AND LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENTS

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pp. 134-168

The Minnesota state board of health was created in 1872. It was the fourth state board of health to be established in the United States and was preceded only by those of Massachusetts (1869), California (1870), and Virginia (1872), although perhaps the District of Columbia board of health, founded in 1871, should be mentioned also. The Minnesota board, and the health department under its jurisdiction, have therefore recently completed their 78th year of operation. The state board of health is the official public health agency of the state of Minnesota and consists...

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Chapter 9. OTHER STATE AGENCIES AND STATE-LOCAL RELATIONS

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pp. 169-173

The water pollution control commission, organized in 1945 as authorized by a state law of that year, is an independent state agency, composed of the heads of four other state agencies and of a member at large appointed by the governor. As indicated in the last chapter, its policies are carried out by the state department of health (division of water pollution control, section of environmental sanitation). Therefore the commission will not be dealt with further here. Similarly, the health activities of the state department of education, since they are carried on in close cooperation with the state...

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Chapter 10. INTERSTATE AND INTERLOCAL RELATIONS

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pp. 174-190

Intergovernmental relations may exist not only vertically between governments on different levels, but also horizontally between governments at the same level—e.g., between states or between cities. On the whole, however, such horizontal relationships, whether interstate or interlocal, are not so numerous or important as the vertical ones. INTERSTATE RELATIONS Undoubtedly one of the more significant of interstate relationships occurs in the conferences that are attended by state health officials in a region or in the nation. These conferences provide opportunities for the interchange of information, the discussion of mutual problems...

APPENDIX

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pp. 191-200

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

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pp. 201-208

INDEX

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pp. 209-212