Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Preface

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pp. v-viii

Continued requests for copies of the papers on the Minnesota Studies of Creative Thinking which I have presented before various groups, and for the reports of the earlier exploratory studies on which some of these papers were based, have influenced the Bureau of Educational Research to publish this collection of seven papers and six experimental studies. ...

Table of Contents

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pp. ix-x

Part I. General Problems

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The Creative Potential of School Children in the Space Age

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pp. 3-15

As we enter the Space Age, we hear a great deal from the critics of American education, and perhaps even more from its defenders. In my view, however, the creative challenge to education in the coming years will be met by neither critics nor defenders, but by prophets and frontier thinkers. ...

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Conditions for Creative Growth

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pp. 16-33

There is so much talk these days about the need for developing the creative talents of children that the conditions needed for creative growth are sometimes overlooked. By now, I think teachers want to know what they can do to stimulate children to think creatively. First, however, it might be useful to consider a few blunt statements about the importance of creative growth. ...

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Mental Health Problems of Highly Creative Children

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pp. 34-43

In this paper I shall sketch eight typical situations, or verbal pictures, from our Minnesota Studies of Creative Thinking, which provide information on the mental health problems of highly creative school children. Then I shall propose a general conceptualization for investigating these problems and applying the results. ...

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Giving Children a Chance to Learn and Think Creatively

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pp. 44-58

When I ask parents and teachers if they want their children or pupils to learn and think creatively, I can count on most of them to say, "Yes!" But if I were to talk with them individually, or to observe their behavior toward children, I am afraid I would find that they don't really mean what they say. ...

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Creative Students in Our Schools Today

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pp. 59-71

The stories of the following eight creative students show what current research is discovering about the identification of creative students, what makes them different from their classmates, and what happens to them in school. I have chosen these eight by no means unique cases to represent the most frequently occurring types of creative student from kindergarten through college. ...

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Cultural Discontinuities and the Development of Originality

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pp. 72-88

When our staff began to study the development of the creative thinking abilities, first by cross-sectional methods and later by longitudinal ones, we were puzzled by what we discovered. Clearly, the intellectual abilities that we had labeled "creative thinking" did not follow the same course of development as other abilities. ...

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Religious Education and Creative Thinking

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pp. 89-100

Man's natural inclination is to learn creatively. By learning creatively he acquires much of his really useful knowledge. By learning creatively he acquires his enduring beliefs. God has commanded man to live creatively. Yet in education we have traditionally insisted that man acquire his knowledge from authority. ...

Part II. Exploratory Studies

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Sex Roles and Appropriateness of Stimuli in Tests of Creative Thinking

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pp. 103-109

Some of the most firmly established facts now available about individual differences concern the rarity of women among inventors (Rossman, 1931) and creative scientists (Roe, 1956). Many have hastened to point out the apparent paradox between these and other equally well-established facts about the superior scholastic achievement, reading skills, and vocabulary development of girls (Mussen and Conger, 1956). ...

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The Role of Manipulation in Creative Thinking

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pp. 110-118

Early in the process of administering our test of creative thinking to children in the first and second grades, members of the project staff observed what appeared to be a meaningful relationship between the child's manipulation of the objects provided to evoke creative thinking, or inventiveness, and the quantity and quality of his responses. ...

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Peer Sanctions Against Highly Creative Children

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pp. 119-136

Creative persons have always met with opposition. Columbus was scorned for thinking the world was round. Everyone laughed at the Wright brothers for believing men could fly. It seems to be the lot of innovators in all fields to endure opposition, apathy, prejudice, and even hate. ...

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Evoking Creative Thinking in the Primary Grades

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pp. 137-144

Many methods are being offered for evoking more and better creative ideas from individuals and groups. A few of these methods are being evaluated objectively through controlled experiments, though reports have been limited to research with adult groups. The experiment reported here was undertaken to encourage creative thinking among young children. ...

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Changing Reactions of Preadolescent Girls to Science Tasks

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pp. 145-151

It is well known that extremely few women have achieved eminence as scientific discoverers or inventors. Experiments such as the ones described in the preceding reports show that in the early school years girls develop attitudes, interests, and even disabilities that make it difficult for them to become scientific discoverers and inventors. ...

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Sex-Role Identification and Creativity

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pp. 152-160

This exploratory study was suggested by a variety of research findings derived from recent studies of creativity, including those of the author (Torrance, 1961a). The most immediate stimulus was a suggestion by Anne Roe (1959) at the Third National Conference on the Identification of Creative Scientific Talent. ...

References

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pp. 161-163

Index

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pp. 164-167