Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

read more

Foreword

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. v-vi

Psychology is often accused of having strayed far from the field indicated in the derivation and original meaning of the phrase — "the science of mind." Of late psychologists have concentrated their attention on observable and measurable behavior and have neglected the classic problem of the nature of thinking, which was of such primary concern in an earlier day. ...

read more

Acknowledgements

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

To Dr. John E. Anderson, who, as chairman of the committee, gave constant direction, assistance, and encouragement, and to Dr. Florence L. Goodenough, whose advice and cooperation were most helpful. ...

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-x

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 3-14

One of the most interesting and most important problems of psychology is the nature of thinking. Yet in the fields of both adult and child psychology, the higher mental processes have been neglected, whereas the simpler and less complicated problems have been the center of attention. ...

read more

The Experiment

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 15-28

The selection of questions of causality for the children to answer was an important problem. There were quite definite criteria that the questions must satisfy: ...

read more

Analysis of Quantified Scores

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 29-42

A quantified scoring system for the answers to the various questions was much to be desired. A measure of the adequacy of the answers as explanations of the phenomena involved would give us a direct measure of the child's understanding of the problem, free from any philosophical implications as to logicality, etc. ...

read more

Analysis of Number of Words Used

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 43-50

The words used in each answer to each question were counted and recorded as a rough measure of language development. There is no direct evidence that the length of response is an adequate measure of language development. Certain evidence, however, points to the possibility of a relationship. ...

read more

Ratings Using Piaget's Classifications

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 51-64

The author attempted to classify each answer to each question according to the classification of Piaget (30), which includes seventeen types of causal thought. It soon became obvious that the task was too difficult and too much a matter of judgment to be left to one person. ...

read more

Sequence and Materialistic Classifications

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 65-77

Upon analyzing Piaget's seventeen types of causal thinking, it became apparent that the types fell into more or less definite sequences. Instead of dividing the types into logical and prelogical as Piaget did, the author divided them upon the basis of the type of agent involved in the explanation. ...

read more

Analysis of Answers Given by Kindergarten Children

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 78-81

For comparative purposes, 13 kindergarten children were given the same tests as were the children in grades 3 to 8. This group had a mean chronological age of 64.8 months, with a range of 59 to 70 months, and a mean IQ of 116.5, with a range of 103 to 130. ...

read more

Item Analysis

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 82-90

Some of the items used in the two forms of this test have been used by previous investigators. A number were taken directly from Piaget's work; others were taken from Huang, Keen, Peterson, and Grigsby. Some have been used by several of these investigators. ...

read more

Interpretation of Findings

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 91-100

The technique used in this investigation, that of presenting the experiments to children in one schoolroom at a time and having them write their explanations, proved highly satisfactory. It is difficult to evaluate the technique statistically, for the usual methods of determining reliability and validity are not applicable. ...

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 101-102

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 103-104