Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Foreword, Acknowledgments

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Contents

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pp. vii-xii

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I. Introduction

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pp. 3-10

Because thought processes play an important role in man's adaptation to his environment, they constitute a major area of psychological interest. Many kinds of intellectual functions are referred to as thought processes. Those described by such terms as problem solving, number concepts, language concepts, and the manipulation of symbols are generally grouped under the head of reasoning. ...

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II. The Experiment

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pp. 11-27

This study was designed to explore the adequacy of various types of reasoning of children and adolescents when their environment was restricted in several ways. The following hypotheses were set up to be tested: ...

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III. Analysis of Reasoning by Matched Group Technique

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pp. 28-54

The most satisfactory measure of the net relationship existing between any variables is obtained when other related variables are controlled. To determine the relationship of the various types of reasoning measured with hearing loss and residence in an institution, other factors related to reasoning are controlled by using the technique of matched groups. ...

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IV. Comparison of the Reasoning of the Hearing and Defective Hearing Subsamples

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pp. 55-91

The reasoning tests used in this study are reported by the original investigators to be related to age, grade, or Intelligence. The analysis of the matched groups in the present research showed a greater relationship between reasoning test scores and the intrinsic factor of hearing acuity than between test scores and the extrinsic factor of type of school enrollment. ...

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V. Intercomparison of the Reasoning Within the Experimental Groups

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pp. 92-105

The results of the analysis of the matched groups indicated that reasoning is more closely related to hearing acuity than to residence in an institution. In the analysis by subsamples this finding was substantiated, since the hearing subjects obtained consistently higher reasoning test scores than the defective hearing when the comparison was made by age, grade, or intelligence. ...

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VI. Written Language Used in Explanation of the Deutsche Questions

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pp. 106-116

The close relationship between language and reasoning Is well recognized. The widely reported language retardation of the defective hearing is basic to this study. Specifically, the findings of Heider and Heider (16) on the language usage of the deaf served as the beginning for the present experiment. ...

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VII. The Defective Hearing

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pp. 117-127

The defective hearing subjects have received lower scores on all of the tests of reasoning with the exception of one subtest, and have shown linguistic immaturity in their written explanations of the Deutsche questions. It Is not only between the hearing and the defective hearing groups that these differences have been observed. ...

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VIII. Summary

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pp. 128-137

This experiment was designed to study the Influence of the restriction of the environment upon reasoning. The reasoning measured is dependent in varying degrees upon specific environmental training or experience. Explanation of the causes of natural phenomena, measured by the Deutsche questions, was selected as most dependent upon training or environment; ...

Bibliography

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pp. 138-140

Index

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pp. 141-143