Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, About the Series

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Contents

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pp. ix-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xii

This book has been a spare-time occupation for many (too many) years, attended to only in intervals between other and more immediate demands. It was Sir Herbert Butterfield who long ago remarked to me that "all historians should at some time or other try to write diplomatic history: it is a discipline," and thereby launched me on what at the time seemed a rash enterprise. ...

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Introduction: The Tranquillity of the North

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pp. xiii-xxvi

The language of diplomacy, as it developed and achieved consistency from the seventeenth century onwards, acquired a precision appropriate to the binding character of the international agreements toward which its efforts are directed; but it combined this (at least until our own time) with a highly stylized diction, ...

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Chapter I: The Road to Stockholm, 1758-1764

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pp. 3-37

March 1758. The Seven Yeats War ablaze in three continents; the outcome everywhere uncertain. No decision upon the high seas: England must wait a year yet for Lagos and Quiberon. No decision in America, where Fort William Henry had lately fallen to the French, and the stolid Abercromby was making heavy weather of the preparations for this summer's campaign. ...

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Chapter II: A Diplomatic Revolution, 1762-1764

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pp. 38-63

The coming of peace at the beginning of 1763 inaugurated for most of the combatants, a period of painful readjustment. Wartime partnerships dissolved when the war was over; and statesmen groped their way to new connections to meet the changed perspectives which the peace had brought. ...

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Chapter III: The Overthrow of the ''French System", April 1764-January 1765

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pp. 64-110

If foreign ministers looked upon Copenhagen as a social desert, they did not make similar complaints about Stockholm. There the trouble was not tedium, but rather the hectic pace of life and the high cost of living.1 By the middle of the eighteenth century Stockholm had grown to be a city of perhaps 70,000 inhabitants. ...

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Chapter IV: Lord Sandwich in Search of a Policy, 1765

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pp. 111-138

The election was won; Rudbeck was lantmarskalk; benchmen, electors, Secret Committee, were all firmly in the hands of the friends of England. Their success confronted Lord Sandwich with the need to come to a decision on three closely interlinked issues. First: was he to continue to pursue the plan of 31 August, ...

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Chapter V: The Caps and the Court, 1765

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pp. 139-178

While Lord Sandwich had been endeavoring to concentrate is mind about the place to be allotted to Sweden in the broad strategy of British foreign policy, Sir John Goodricke had had his hands full with the minor tactics of diplomacy. In these local skirmishes he found an evident satisfaction; ...

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Chapter VI: The Rockinghams and Goodricke's Treaty, 1765-1766

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pp. 179-212

The attack on the Hat Senators was just gathering impeitus, the party struggle was just moving to a climax, when on 12 July the duke of Grafton succeeded Lord Sandwich as Secretary of State for the Northern Department. After nearly two months of political uncertainty the Rockingham administration had at last been installed in office; ...

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Chapter VII: The End of the Cap Diet, 1766

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pp. 213-232

In the still waters of Whitehall Goodricke's treaty might make no more than a transient ripple; but in more sensitive quarters it produced reactions which belied its innocuous appearance. In vain Lowenhielm gave Breteuil reiterated assurances that there was nothing in it to cause offense to France; ...

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Chapter VIII: Drift, Deflation, and Defeat, 1766-68

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pp. 233-274

By November 1766, then, Goodricke and the Caps stood poised to implement the program which they had laid down in the spring of 1765. The French system was broken, France's payment of arrears was indefinitely suspended, the Senate indignant at the language which Choiseul and Breteuil had latterly seen fit to hold towards them. ...

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Chapter IX: Lord Rochford and the Hat Diet, 1769-1770

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pp. 275-325

It was in no festive spirit that Goodricke greeted the end of the year and the opening of the new. In four months the Extraordinary Diet was due to meet in Norrkoping; and four months was far too little to give time for the upturn in the economy, already perceptible, to have its effect upon the elections. ...

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Chapter X: Interlude, 1770-1771

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pp. 326-348

The Diet was over; the members, dispersed. The political clubs closed their doors, no doubt to the regret of the innkeepers of Stockholm; the exhausted diplomats made up the accounts of corruption, congratulating themselves that with reasonable good fortune it would be three years before the meeting of the next ordinary Diet exposed them to renewed importunities; ...

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Chapter XI: Failure of a Mission, 1771-1772

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pp. 349-403

At the beginning of June, then, Swedish politics were still poised in uncertainty, and no man could be sure to which side the balance would incline. If Gustav III were minded to seize the opportunity which this state of affairs offered to him, he had not much time at his disposal. ...

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Epilogue Tranquillity Preserved, 1772-1773

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pp. 404-416

The revolution of 19 August 1772 was an event in the history of England, no less than in that of Sweden. It was not simply that it had obvious consequences for Anglo-Swedish relations. It marked the end of a quite distinct period in the history of British foreign policy, for it dealt the final blow to the assumptions upon which that policy had been founded since 1763. ...

Notes

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pp. 417-496

Bibliography

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pp. 497-514

Index

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pp. 515-528