Cover

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Series Page, Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. vii-x

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Introduction: The Construction of a Colonial Imaginary: Columbus's Signature

Rene Jara, Nicholas Spadaccini

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pp. 1-95

Few tales in the history of the world are more familiar than the one relating the adventures of Columbus, the fabled Admiral of the Ocean Sea who, prisoner of his dreams, sailed West in search of the fabulous riches of Cathay or Cipangu, only to trip on America, a mass of then "unknown" land that was soon to become the fourth terrestrial continent. ...

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Chapter 1 Word and Mirror: Presages of the Encounter

Miguel León-Portilla

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pp. 96-102

The announcer of the portent was born in Córdoba many centuries ago. The testimonies of the fulfiller of the presage are still found today in Seville, beside the Giralda. And upon the realization of the portent, from the coasts of Andalucia, facing the Atlantic, the ocean ceased being an encircling barrier to become a path of encounters. ...

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Chapter 2 De Bry's Las Casas

Tom Conley

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pp. 103-131

Many of the images we know of the European encounter with the New World come to us through Théodore De Bry and his two sons. Currently adorning posters and brochures announcing conferences celebrating the Columbian Quincentennial, they offer an allure of "authenticity" of first-hand contact of new and old cultures. ...

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Chapter 3 (Re)discovering Aztec Images

Eloise Quinoñes Keber

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pp. 132-162

With these awe-struck words the Spanish conquistador Bernal Díaz, writing decades later in distant Guatemala, vividly recalled his first glimpse of the Aztec capital of Mexico Tenochtitlan, which in 1519 he was among the first Europeans to see (Fig. I).1 ...

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Chapter 4 Fantastic Tales and Chronicles of the Indies

Manuel Alvar

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pp. 163-182

This is not the first time that, in one way or another, the manner in which chivalric literature formed part of the nascent New World has been addressed. It is customary, however, to speculate with relative success based on very little information. ...

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Chapter 5 Reading in the Margins of Columbus

Margarita Zamora

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pp. 183-197

In a recent study on the colonization of Peru, Steve J. Stern traced the political and economic processes that transformed various and distinct Andean groups into a homogeneous, subordinate, and marginalized caste of "Indians." ...

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Chapter 6 To Read Is to Misread, To Write Is to Miswrite: Las Casas as Transcriber

David Henige

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pp. 198-229

Since they first appeared, the works of Bartolome de Las Casas have been both the object of encomium and the target of obloquy. In particular his Brevisíma relatión de la destructión de las Indias aroused passions on its publication in 1552 and has managed to excite controversy ever since.2 ...

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Chapter 7 Loving Columbus

José Piedra

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pp. 230-265

...They also likely made love to him. The original saying appeared on a bumpersticker that was produced to exploit the "celebration" of the 500th anniversary of the "discovery" of America. It is still glued, half-torn by an anonymous hand, to the glass panel of my office door and was the gift of a Caribbean student who was taking my course "Native Revenge." ...

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Chapter 8 Fray Ramón Pané, Discoverer of the Taíno People

José Juan Arrom

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pp. 266-290

Columbus, seeking a shorter route to the East Indies, accidentally found some islands not charted on European maps. During his trip, he described the landscape of those islands and placed in that landscape some exotic beings whom he called Indians. ...

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Chapter 9 Colonial Writing and Indigenous Discourse in Ramón Pané's: Relación acerca de las antigüedades de los indios

Santiago López Maguina

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pp. 291-311

The Relatión, written by the Hieronymite friar Ramon Pane around 1498, is the first Spanish text written with the intention of providing information about "the beliefs and idolatries" ("las creencias e idolatrías") of the Indians who lived on the island of Hispaniola—the name with which Christopher Columbus rechristened Haiti—"and how they venerate their gods" ...

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Chapter 10 When Speaking Was Not Good Enough: Illiterates, Barbarians, Savages, and Cannibals

Walter D. Mignolo

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pp. 312-345

The lack of alphabetic writing was one of the most significant trademarks, next to lack of clothing and the eating of human flesh, in the construction of the image of the Amerindians during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. ...

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Chapter 11 Colonial Reform or Utopia? Guaman Poma's Empire of the Four Parts of the World

Rolena Adorno

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pp. 346-374

The project Amerindian Images asks us to consider how our present assumptions shape our understanding of the Indian of the past. Over the years I have observed three recurrent themes that deserve continual scrutiny and correction. I shall sketch them quickly in the paragraphs that follow. ...

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Chapter 12 Amerindian Image and Utopian Project: Motolinía and Millenarian Discourse

Georges Baudot

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pp. 375-400

The discursive treatment of the Amerindian image, when related to Utopian projects of a political-spiritual kind such as the one that is forged and expressed by the first Franciscan missionaries in Mexico, must first be considered in its historical roots. That is, one must contemplate the antiquity of such discourse and its most evident sources. ...

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Chapter 13 The Place of the Translator in the Discourses of Conquest: Hernán Cortés's Cartas de relación and Roland Joffé's The Mission

David E. Johnson

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pp. 401-424

In "Learning to Curse: Aspects of Linguistic Colonialism in the Sixteenth Century," Stephen Greenblatt cites Caliban's lines to Miranda and writes: "Caliban's retort might be taken as self-indictment: even with the gift of language, his nature is so debased that he can only learn to curse. ...

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Chapter 14 Other-Fashioning: The Discourse of Empire and Nation in Lope de Vega's El nuevo mundo descubierto por Cristóbal Colón

Allen Carey-Webb

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pp. 425-451

During the sixteenth century Spain had the largest and most imposing empire of any European power since Rome. From the Philippines to Africa, from Italy to Peru, it was, in fact, the first imperium on which "the sun never set." Spain was at the forefront of developing and expanding European nations, a model for dominion abroad and absolutism at home. ...

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Chapter 15 Authoritarianism in Brazilian Colonial Discourse

Roberto Reis

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pp. 452-472

The colonial period is one of the least known in Brazilian literary studies.2 One of the reasons might be a paradigm that is still current among Brazilian historiographic literary studies that emphasize a close reading of texts and/or the specificity of poetic language. ...

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Chapter 16 Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz; or, The Snares of (Con)(tra)di(c)tion

Elena Feder

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pp. 473-529

In her Respuesta a Sor Piloted de la Cruz (Reply to Sor Philothea), Sor Juana states: "And in truth I have never written except against my will and when forced to and then only to please others; not only without gratifying pleasure but with actual repugnance." ...

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Chapter 17 The Indian as Image and as Symbolic Structure: Bartolomé Arzáns's Historia de la Villa Imperial de Potosí

Leonardo García Pabón

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pp. 530-564

From 1545, the year the Indian Huallpa discovered the Mountain of Potosi, where the Imperial City of Potosí would be founded, until its days of decadence and abandon at the end of the eighteenth century, Potosí carried the mark of the indigenous in its history. ...

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Chapter 18 Images of America in Eighteenth-Century Spanish Comedy

Bernardita Llanos

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pp. 565-583

In the popular Spanish heroic comedy of the early eighteenth century the Conquest of America is related to the issue of evangelization. At the same time, two images of the Amerindian emerged: the image of the wild man—in contrast to the superior nature of the Spaniard—and that of the Noble Savage who was imbued with the European virtues of decorum, ...

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Chapter 19 Humboldt and the Reinvention of America

Mary Louise Pratt

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pp. 584-606

It was in 1799 that Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland secured permission from the Spanish Crown to travel freely throughout the interior of its American colonies. Their nip lasted from 1799 to 1804, during which time they journeyed widely in South America, Mexico, and the United States. ...

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Chapter 20 Atahuallpa Inca: Axial Figure in the Encounter of Two Worlds

Marta Bermúdez-Gallegos

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pp. 607-628

Atahuallpa was the last Inca in power before the Spanish arrival and for this reason the colonial imaginary presents Atahuallpa as the point of intersection of the two worlds that participate in the drama of colonization. One might say that all discourses making up the network of colonial culture seem to converge in ambiguity in the portrayal of Atahuallpa's persona. ...

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Chapter 21 Art and Resistance in the Andean World

Teresa Gisbert

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pp. 629-677

The encounter between the native Andean peoples and the Spaniards was to favor the invaders, for the Inca empire, which had previously dominated the entire region, was in the midst of a civil war. The ethnic lords of the south supported Huascar, whose court was in Cuzco,1 while his half brother, Atahuallpa, dominated the north. ...

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Chapter 22 Saer's Fictional Representation of the Amerindian in the Context of Modern Historiography

Amaryll Chanady

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pp. 678-708

The Latin American novelistic production of the past few decades has contributed to the rereading, rewriting, and demystification of history and has thus frequently challenged hegemonic interpretations. Some of the most notable examples are Alejo Carpentier's El arpa y la sombra (The Harp and the Shadow), ...

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Chapter 23 An Image of Hispanic America from the Spain of 1992

Angel López García

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pp. 709-728

The Spanish Conquest of the American continent that began in 1492 is one of those historical topics that seem to leave no room for neutrality. From that year on, arguments both for and against the American enterprise have abounded: ...

Contributors

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pp. 729-736

Index

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pp. 737-758