COVER

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TITLE PAGE, COPYRIGHT

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pp. iii-iv

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PREFACE

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pp. v-vi

The Employment Stabilization Research Institute was organized at the University of Minnesota in 1931 for the purpose of making studies of unemployment and conducting certain experiments. Three fairly well-defined types of investigation were involved in the project. The first was primarily a study in economics; ...

CONTENTS

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pp. vii-vii

I. THE PROBLEM AND THE APPROACH

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Introduction

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pp. 1-2

In modern society total production has never been sufficient to supply the desires of the people for consumption. Though a few people in each age have command of all the goods and services which the twenty-four hours of the day permit them to consume, the armies of the middle and lower classes have many unfulfilled ...

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Cause-and-Effect Relations

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pp. 2-5

The difficulties that confront anyone attempting to trace cause-and- effect relationships in the social sciences are multitudinous. Economic phenomena depend, in the last analysis, upon biologic reactions. Human biologic reactions depend, in turn, upon the conditioning that the individual has received both by inheritance and ...

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Economic Control and Unemployment

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pp. 5-12

There is a formal economic system in which the use of all resources is determined in an automatic exchange system by the desires of the people to consume goods. In such an economic system the value of the goods and services produced must equal the value of the goods and services consumed; in other words, ...

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Field Covered by Institute Studies

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pp. 12-13

The Employment Stabilization Research Institute has attempted a study of employment and employment trends in a rather large area. Several approaches have been made simultaneously. First, a positive measurement of the number of people employed by leading industrial and commercial firms in the area has been made on ...

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II. TURNING THE SPOTLIGHT ON THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF MINNESOTA

Contemplation of the social, economic, and political kaleidoscope of the Central Northwest discloses striking contrasts, many somber tints, and unpleasant groupings. The attempt to combine the two basic systems of control into one has not been wholly satisfactory. There are evidences of ineptitude both in private business and in ...

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Employment Fluctuations

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pp. 15-17

Unemployment is ever present. Even during the prosperous years from 1926 to 1930 the number of unemployed in the principal cities of Minnesota varied from 3.5 to 7.2 per cent of the gainfully employed. After the collapse in the stock market in 1929 the number of unemployed increased rapidly. By the spring of 1932, 21.4 percent ...

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Population Trends

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pp. 17-19

In 1850 the population of the territory of Minnesota was 6,077. Within the next eighty-three years it increased to 2,563,953. During this short period — the span of life of a single individual — the state has witnessed the development, and in some cases the subsequent decline, of agriculture, lumbering, mining, flour milling, transportation ...

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Occupational Shifts

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pp. 19-21

Some significant changes have taken place since 1870 in the relative importance of the various occupational groups of Minnesota. To illustrate the broad occupational trends the gainful workers have been classified into eight occupational groups. The proportion of gainful workers in each of these groups in every census year since ...

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Seasonal Irregularities in Employment

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pp. 21-25

Sixty-two per cent of the employees in the plants covered in the survey of employment in Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Duluth were employed in seasonal industries, and an additional 3 per cent were employed by firms in which there were definite indications of irregularity of employment throughout the year. The amplitude of ...

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Impact of the Depression on Employment

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pp. 26-29

The index of employment for the three cities started a downward trend in the fall of 1929 and continued to fall except for slight seasonal spurts until the summer of 1933, when it reached a low point of 64.5. (See Figure 1 on page 16). This decline was typical of the country as a whole, although it was less severe than that experienced ...

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Mortality of Business Firms

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pp. 29-32

Unemployment records are not complete unless they take account of the large number of proprietors and members of business firms that are frequently rendered idle. During the five-year period 1926-30 over 12,000 firms went out of business in the Twin Cities and Duluth, and a slightly smaller number of new firms were ...

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Manufacturing

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pp. 32-37

Measured by the average number employed, manufacturing is less important than agriculture in Minnesota. Of the gainfully employed in 1930, 20.8 per cent were in manufacturing and mechanical industries and 30.6 per cent in agriculture. Measured in terms of value of output or value added by manufacture, on the other hand, the ...

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Country Banking and Economic Stability

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pp. 37-39

Unemployment is concentrated for the most part in the metropolitan areas, hence we have directed our attention primarily to the problems of the principal industries located in the cities. The economic life of the Twin Cities and Duluth, however, depends in large measure upon the conditions in the adjacent agricultural ...

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The Ebb and Flow of Industries

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pp. 39-44

Dynamic instability is clearly shown in the rise and fall of industries in Minnesota. For three-quarters of a century Minnesota has been characterized by the pioneer development that is typical of young communities. Early in the history of the state two industries became dominant. One of these was lumbering and the other flour ...

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Instability, Insecurity, and Freedom of Choice

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pp. 44-47

The Institute developed a method of summarizing the conditions of instability in this area through the use of an Index of General Business. This index is presented in Figure 3 for the period 1919 to 1935, inclusive. From this index it may be seen that at no time in more than fifteen years has there been a period longer than one ...

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Advantageous Location of Industries

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pp. 47-53

A sane policy of industrial development can be approached only through an understanding of the conditions that make for advantageous location of individual industries. Even complete knowledge on this point would not prevent instability, however, because of the continuing changes in the technique of production on the one hand ...

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Management Practices and Their Relation to Income

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pp. 53-57

Improvement in the scale of living in Minnesota need not wait, however, on the location of new industry. Any increase in the efficiency with which production is carried on will add to the real income of the community. This would be true regardless of whether the improvement occurred in the ubiquitous industries or in the ...

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III. ADJUSTING THE DUAL CONTROLS

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pp. 58-72

The pattern of human society is constantly changing. This is true with respect to consumption, production techniques, and political institutions. It would be presumptuous to suggest that in any one lifetime a final social pattern could appear. Slow evolution, with its gradual acceptance and rejection of particular threads, has always ...

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IV. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

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pp. 73-82

If the reader has followed us thus far, it may seem perhaps that few positive or constructive recommendations have been made. In this final section, consequently, we should like to present some suggestions for a gradual changing of rules and a strengthening both of offense and defense in the interests of the economic well-being of ...

INDEX

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pp. 83-86

PUBLICATIONS OF THE EMPLOYMENT STABILIZATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

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pp. 87-96