Cover

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Title Page, Series Editors, Copyright, Dedication, Quote

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

I would like to thank the many Michigan residents of Hmong descent who willingly and graciously told their invaluable first-person stories. They are the very first Hmong Americans in Michigan to share their courageous stories for others to read about their challenging journeys. They include:...

Timeline of the Hmong

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pp. xiii-xvi

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Preface

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pp. xvii-xxii

The Hmong Americans—elderly, middle-aged, and young—in Michigan who participated in the interviews in this book were particularly friendly and gracious. Some had come as refugees; others were born in the United States. Excerpts from these oral histories and follow-up email interviews...

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A Brief Overview of Hmong History

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pp. 1-22

The Hmong are a people who have no country of their own. For centuries, they have migrated thousands of miles and struggled as a minority to survive wherever they have lived. Not having a written language, they have relied on oral communications to maintain strong connections with...

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Coming to Michigan

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pp. 23-36

Over several centuries of history and always under a cloak of fear, the Hmong people migrated many times from one country to another. They finally left the refugee camps in Thailand beginning in the 1970s to go to the United States and other Western countries. Th e individuals interviewed...

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Adapting to Michigan

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pp. 37-68

While the Hmong refugees have faced major challenges and difficulties adapting to Michigan, several significant factors have helped them survive and thrive. They have a tremendous ability and desire to preserve their culture and family that strengthens them individually and collectively. They have...

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Some Afterthoughts

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pp. 69-70

Hmong Americans in Michigan is merely an initial, very brief introduction to the Hmong Americans in Michigan, a backdrop or launch pad for others to explore the history of these people and to conduct future research so that others may learn more about these strong, brave, innovative people...

Appendix 1. Hmong Populations in Michigan Areas

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pp. 71-72

Appendix 2. Education and Socioeconomic Attainment in the United States

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pp. 73-74

Appendix 3. Recipes

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pp. 75-80

Appendix 4. Resources

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pp. 81-82

Notes

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pp. 83-90

For Further Reference

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pp. 91-98

Index

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pp. 99-101