Front Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. v-vi

read more

Foreword

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

Since the nation’s founding, transportation has been vital to our prosperity, and it still is today. An active role in transportation policy and funding by our national government is vital. The last dozen years have seen strong leadership in this area, highlighted by approval of the landmark ISTEA bill in 1991 and its worthy successor TEA-21. In my former...

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. ix

The editors would like to thank Anthony Downs, Mark Muro, David Jackson, David Warren, and Amy Liu at the Brookings Institution’s Metropolitan Policy Program for their wholly necessary guidance and assistance in the development of the policy briefs that constitute the chapters in this volume; Starr Belsky, who edited the volume for the Brookings Institution Press, as well as...

PART ONE: A Metropolitan Agenda for Transportation

read more

Chapter 1. Transportation Reform for the Twenty-First Century: An Overview

Bruce Katz and Robert Puentes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 3-14

In 1956 President Dwight Eisenhower signed the Federal-Aid Highway Act, creating the Interstate Highway Program, the largest public works program in our nation’s history. But today, a decade after the completion of this vast network of highways, the country’s transportation policy is languishing. At its creation, the public agreed that this immense federal program was essential for the health, prosperity, and economic competitiveness of the nation. A sense...

read more

Chapter 2. Getting Transportation Right for Metropolitan America

Bruce Katz, Robert Puentes, Scott Bernstein

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 15-42

Since the debates and deliberations began in 2003 over reauthorization of the Transportation Equity Act for the Twenty-First Century (TEA- 21), Congress has struggled with how to allocate about $300 billion dollars over six years to preserve, modernize, and expand the U.S. surface transportation system. The stakes could not be higher—for the country and particularly for its...

PART TWO: Financing the Transportation System

read more

Chapter 3. Fueling Transportation Finance: A Primer on the Gas Tax

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 45-76

With debates about traffic and taxes urgent now, few issues have become as contentious as how to pay for roads and transit. Amid these disputes, few controversies remain as heated as those surrounding the motor fuel excise tax known as the “gas tax.” Initiated originally at the state level, the gas tax has been widely used in public finance since...

read more

Chapter 4. Improving Efficiency and Equity in Transportation Finance

Martin Wachs

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 77-100

Ever since the widespread adoption of automobiles, the American highway system has generally been financed with “user fees”—money collected from those who use the roads. Tolls and fuel taxes, which levy charges roughly proportionally to travelers’ use of roads, have been the most common. However, tolls have traditionally been costly and difficult to collect because of the need to construct toll plazas and staff them with salaried workers. In...

read more

Chapter 5. Slanted Pavement: How Ohio's Highway Spending Shortchanges Cities and Suburbs

Edward Hill, Billie Geyer, Robert Puentes, Kevin O’Brien, Claudette Robey, John Brennan

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 101-136

Roads and highways are physical and fiscal realities, joining waterlines, sewers, and telecommunications infrastructure in shaping America’s metropolitan areas. Roads form the backbone of the regional transportation system, flowing seamlessly across municipal boundaries. They enable local housing and labor markets to function while connecting locally made goods and services...

PART THREE: Getting the Geography of Transportation Right

read more

Chapter 6. Increasing Funding and Accountability for Metropolitan Transportation Decisions

Robert Puentes, Linda Bailey

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 139-168

Metropolitan areas matter. They are the engines of the new global economy. Supplier networks and customer relationships are regional rather than local in nature. Labor markets and commuting patterns cross jurisdictional and state lines. Firms make decisions on location and expansion based on regional advantages and amenities. Metropolitan areas are where most Americans...

read more

Chapter 7. The Need for Regional Anticongestion Policies

Anthony Downs, Robert Puentes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 169-194

Everyone hates traffic congestion. It wastes time and fuel and adds to air pollution. It also generates widespread frustration that even results in violence induced by “road rage.” Congestion is especially aggravating because all attempted remedies seem to fail: traffic delays keep getting worse. This violates the axiom of American culture that all problems have solutions. “Why don’t...

PART FOUR: Meeting Societal Needs in Transportation

read more

Chapter 8. The Long Journey to Work: A Federal Transportation Policy for Working Families

Evelyn Blumenberg, Margy Waller

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 197-226

Evidence from the 2000 census and other sources indicates that decentralization of economic and residential life remains the dominant growth pattern in the United States. Suburban areas continue to capture the lion’s share of population and employment growth. America has rapidly become an “exit ramp” economy with office, retail, and commercial facilities increasingly located on the...

read more

Chapter 9. The Mobility Needs of Older Americans: Implications for Transportation Reauthorization

Sandra Rosenbloom

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 227-254

In 2000, 35 million Americans, or 12.4 percent of the total U.S. population, were over age sixty-five, and almost 4.5 million (or 1.6 percent of the total population) were over age eighty-five. By 2030 the number of older Americans will more than double.1 Almost all of those seniors will have been licensed drivers for most of their lives, including many seniors too disabled to walk far...

PART FIVE: Other Important Metropolitan Transportation Issues

read more

Chapter 10. Highways and Transit: Leveling the Playing Field in Federal Transportation Policy

Edward Beimborn, Robert Puentes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 257-286

Automobile trips dominate the way Americans travel. Conventional wisdom assumes that this is the result of a fair competition between all transportation modes operating under the same federal policies and rules. However, the conventional wisdom is wrong. Federal policies that govern highway and transit projects are not the same. In fact, these two modes, which federal law...

read more

Chapter 11. Protecting America's Highways and Transit Systems against Terrorism

Arnold Howitt, Jonathan Makler

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 287-314

In early April 2004, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Department of Homeland Security issued a terse advisory, warning local officials of possible bombing attempts against buses or trains in American cities.1 Since train bombings in Madrid in March had killed nearly 200 people and injured another 1,500, and a subway bombing in Moscow only one month earlier had...

Contributors

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 315-316

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 317-334