Front Cover

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Series Info, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

This book was ten years in the making. But I could not have completed this journey without the aid, advice, and support of so many people along the way, from start to finish. ...

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Foreword

Scott Richard Lyons

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pp. xiii-xvi

As far as we know, the first Native American to publish writing in the English language was the Mohegan preacher Samson Occom (1723–1792). Occom is primarily remembered today for his autobiography, “A Short Narrative of My Life” (1768), the first of many Native autobiographies to come, ...

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Introduction

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pp. xvii-xxiv

In 1870, in anticipation of the removal of several Plateau Indian tribes to what would become the Colville reservation, the superintendent of Indian Affairs dispatched sub-Indian agent William Parkhurst Winans to northern Washington state to collect census data, among other particulars. ...

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1. “Real Indians” Don’t Rap: Theorizing Indigenous Rhetorics

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pp. 1-19

Let me begin by saying that I am not an Indian, “real” or otherwise. I am a white female English professor whose research focuses on the cultural rhetorics of U.S. minorities. In 2001, I embarked on a five-year collaboration with two schools on a Plateau Indian reservation in Washington state. ...

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2. Defining Principles of Plateau Indian Rhetoric

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pp. 20-42

In chapter 1, I theorized how and why a rhetoric might be identified as indigenous, situating that discussion within the context of American Indian studies. In this chapter I describe the indigenous rhetoric specific to the Plateau Indians, situating that description within the context of rhetoric and composition. ...

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3. Speaking Straight in Indian Languages: 1855–1870

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pp. 43-74

"I am of another nation, when I speak you do not understand me. When you speak, I do not understand you,” Spokan Garry asserted at the Spokane council in 1855.1 His statement carries multivalent meaning, suggesting that the Indians and the Americans were separated by many kinds of differences—at once linguistic, political, cultural, and rhetorical. ...

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4. Writing in English: 1910–1921

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pp. 75-103

In 1915 government rangers caught a band of Yakama shooting and trapping wild game animals in the prohibited area of Mount Rainier National Park. The band was led by eighty-two-year-old Chief Sluiskin, who as a boy had tended Chief Owhi’s horses at the Treaty Council of Walla Walla. ...

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5. Deliberating Publicly: 1955–1956

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pp. 104-127

At the General Council meeting of the Yakama Nation on January 13, 1956, council officer Burdette Kent opened proceedings with a summary behind the “squabbling” that had dominated the assembly’s meetings since the previous July: ...

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6. Writing in School: 2000–2004

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pp. 128-156

At the Treaty Council at Walla Walla in 1855, U.S. military scribes were not the only ones transcribing the proceedings. Several literate Indians, who had been taught by Presbyterian missionaries how to read and write in English, and in some cases, in their own languages, also took notes.1 ...

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7. Reassessing the Achievement Gap

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pp. 157-174

“Would it not be good if you wanted to talk with my brother, or if you wanted to talk with our Great Chief? If you knew how to write and wanted to talk you could send it to him on paper and he would know your heart. Would it not be good then to have schools among you?”1 ...

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Afterword

Kristin L. Arola

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pp. 175-178

I grew up in Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula. This matters deeply to me. On the Euro-sides of my family—mostly Finnish with a dab of Italian, German, and French Canadian for good measure—I’m the fifth generation born within a thirty-mile radius. ...

Notes

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pp. 179-196

Bibliography

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pp. 197-206

Index

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pp. 207-220