Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-x

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xiv

Since the founding of our country, many Americans have engaged in the legal and societal struggle to free the United States from the legacy of slavery, segregation, and racial prejudice. Prudence Crandall’s Legacy views that struggle from the perspective of a nineteenth-century Connecticut schoolteacher and her allies. ...

read more

1 Fire in the Night Sky

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-21

Throughout her life, Prudence Crandall wanted to teach. Education offered the potential for opportunity, self-sufficiency, even freedom, especially for women, blacks, and the poor. Crandall discovered, however, that educating the oppressed involved risk and clashed with deep-rooted traditions in American society. ...

read more

2 Liberators

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 22-43

In the fall of 1831 a young writer sought out William Lloyd Garrison at his Boston office of the Liberator. Maria W. Stewart sat patiently as Garrison read her essays. The first concerned religious faith and “devotional thoughts and aspirations.”1 ...

read more

3 Education for All

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 44-64

Prudence Crandall told no one in Canterbury about her plans to teach black women at her school; she confided only in William Lloyd Garrison. “I do not dare tell any one of my neighbors anything about the contemplated change in my school,” she wrote to Garrison, “and I beg of you, sir, that you will not expose it to anyone; ...

read more

4 A Mountain of Prejudice

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 65-80

Andrew Judson immediately launched a campaign to publicize the outcome of the Canterbury town meeting and to attack Crandall’s school. In letters to the local newspapers he praised the civility of Crandall’s opponents and criticized Crandall’s “foreign” supporters, who Judson said tried to intimidate the citizens of Canterbury. ...

read more

5 The Black Law

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 81-97

As the month of April ended, Prudence Crandall had only three black students at her school. In addition to local opposition, Crandall now battled a dire fiscal situation and realized she could not rely on advertisements in the Liberator to increase enrollment. ...

read more

6 Sanctuary Denied

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 98-112

The ongoing acts of vandalism against Prudence Crandall’s school took a more serious turn in July 1833. ...

read more

7 On Trial

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 113-130

Using Arthur Tappan’s financial resources, Samuel May hired three of the best attorneys in Connecticut to defend Prudence Crandall: William Ellsworth, Calvin Goddard, and Henry Strong. Crandall’s attorneys expected to persuade the judge and jury that the Black Law violated the Constitution. ...

read more

8 Judge Daggett’s Decision

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 131-147

As the long days of New England summer stretched into September, Maria Stewart carefully considered her future. For three years she had led a life filled with controversy. She had spoken out in public about politics, religion, equality among the races and sexes, and the evils of slavery and discrimination. ...

read more

9 Romantic Revolutionaries

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 148-166

Newspapers throughout the United States and across the Atlantic in England reported on the progress of Prudence Crandall’s October trial.1 Fear of “amalgamation of the races” and the rights of free blacks—the subtexts of Crandall’s trial—made for sensational reading. One man took a personal interest. ...

read more

10 Race Riots

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 167-190

The widening gap between rich and poor in the 1830s plunged a growing number of Americans into poverty. Wages for common workers remained stagnant, while agricultural prices rose 51 percent between 1829 and 1836.1 Bank profits soared.2 ...

read more

11 Appeal for Equality

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 191-210

As Prudence Crandall’s allies in New York City suffered and retreated in the face of violence, she lost an important ally in the press. One year earlier Samuel May and Arthur Tappan had secured a local printing press in Brooklyn and commenced publication of the Unionist. ...

read more

12 The End of the Beginning

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 211-225

William Penn had envisioned Philadelphia as a “city of brotherly love.” When Prudence and Calvin Philleo arrived in Philadelphia in late August 1834, they found a city torn apart by deadly interracial violence that had occurred just days earlier. ...

read more

13 Family Trials and Tragedies

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 226-244

One of Prudence Crandall’s students, Julia Williams, refused to let go of her dream of obtaining an education.1 Originally from Charleston, South Carolina, Julia’s family lived in Boston and knew William Lloyd Garrison. After Crandall’s school closed, Julia traveled to Canaan, New Hampshire. ...

read more

14 Dred Scott and the Winds of Change

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 245-267

During the years that Prudence Crandall and William Lloyd Garrison worked together to create her Canterbury school in the early 1830s, Garrison visited her school on only a handful of occasions— primarily because of the warrants for his arrest. ...

read more

15 The Civil War

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 268-284

Shortly before the end of the 1850s, Prudence Crandall Philleo had moved from her farm in Troy Grove to a home in the newly developed town of Mendota, Illinois, where two Illinois railroad lines intersected.1 Prudence moved there to be closer to the shops, churches, and transportation and also to get away from her erratic husband. ...

read more

16 Reunions and Farewells

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 285-306

After living in Mendota for the war years, in 1865 Prudence and Calvin Philleo moved to a 140-acre farm near Cordova, Illinois.1 In Cordova, Calvin enjoyed the peace and quiet he had long desired. The open farmland on the banks of the Mississippi River created an idyllic setting, and for a time Calvin was kind to Prudence and his daughter Emeline. ...

read more

17 Pursuit of Justice

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 307-329

Prudence Crandall witnessed a remarkable transformation of the western United States during her years in Elks Falls, Kansas. The transcontinental railroad—completed in 1869—spawned rapid development. Settlers increasingly fenced and farmed the open plains. “How many changes we have passed through,” Crandall wrote.1 ...

read more

18 Prudence Crandall in the Twentieth Century

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 330-345

Twenty-one years after Prudence Crandall’s death, three Connecticut legislators sought to honor her with an official memorial.1 In 1911 they introduced legislation to appropriate $1500 for the construction of a monument near the Packerville Baptist Church in Plainfield. The Appropriations Committee held the request over from one public hearing in February to another hearing in March.2 ...

read more

Epilogue

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 346-348

The story of Prudence Crandall’s life and legacy remains relevant to many challenges we face today. Crandall, William Lloyd Garrison, and their allies demonstrated that securing societal progress and enlightenment often requires great courage and perseverance; it is difficult yet essential. ...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 349-434

Illustration Credits

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 435-438

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 439-452

read more

About the Author

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 453-453

Donald E. Williams Jr. is president pro tempore of the Connecticut State Senate. He holds a J.D. from Washington and Lee University School of Law and a B.S. in journalism from Syracuse University. ...

About the Driftless Connecticut Series

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Images

pdf iconDownload PDF