Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-x

Translators

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pp. xi-xii

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General Introduction

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pp. xiii-xxiv

Karl Marx and Frederick Engels were the authors of an integrated body of philosophical, economic and social-political views, the ideology of communism, which in our time has spread more widely and exercised a greater influence on the course of world history than any other. ...

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Preface

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pp. xxv-xxxiv

The first volume of the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels contains works and letters written by Marx between August 1835 and March 1843. The volume is divided into four sections—works, letters, preparatory material and youthful literary experiments in prose and verse, the material in each section being arranged chronologically. ...

Karl Marx: Works August 1835-1843

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pp. 1-2

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Reflections of a Young Man on the Choice of a Profession

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pp. 3-9

Nature herself has determined the sphere of activity in which the animal should move, and it peacefully moves within that sphere, without attempting to go beyond it, without even an inkling of any other. To man, too, the Deity gave a general aim, that of ennobling mankind and himself, but he left it to man to seek the means by which this aim can be achieved; ...

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Letter from Marx to His Father

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pp. 10-21

There are moments in one's life which are like frontier posts marking the completion of a period but at the same time clearly indicating a new direction. ...

Wild Songs

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pp. 22-24

Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature

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Dedication

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pp. 27-28

You will forgive me, my dear fatherly friend, if I set your name, so dear to me, at the head of an insignificant brochure. I am too impatient to await another opportunity of giving you a small proof of my love. ...

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Foreword

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pp. 29-31

The form of this treatise would have been on the one hand more strictly scientific, on the other hand in many of its arguments less pedantic, if its primary purpose had not been that of a doctor's dissertation. I am nevertheless constrained by external reasons to send it to the press in this form. ...

Contents

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pp. 32-33

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Part One. Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature in General

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pp. 34-45

Greek philosophy seems to have met with something with which a good tragedy is not supposed to meet, namely, a dull ending.a The objective history of philosophy in Greece seems to come to an end withb Aristotle, Greek philosophy's Alexander of Macedon, and even the manly-strong Stoics did not succeedc in what the Spartans did accomplish in their temples, ...

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Part Two. On the Difference Between Democritean and Epicurean Physics in Detail

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pp. 46-73

Epicurus assumes a threefold motion of the atoms in the void.1) One motion is the fall in a straight line, the second originates in the deviation of the atom from the straight line, and the third is established through the repulsion of the many atoms. Both Democritus and Epicurus accept the first and the third motion. ...

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Fragment from the Appendix: Critique of Plutarch's Polemic Against the Theology of Epicurus

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pp. 74-76

Then he brings fear up again as the means to reform the evil-doers and thus justifies the terrors of the underworld for the sensuous consciousness. We have already considered this objection of his. Since in fear, and specifically in an inner fear that cannot be extinguished, man is determined as an animal, we do not care at all how an animal is kept in restraint. ...

Notes

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pp. 77-105

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Draft of New Preface

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pp. 106-108

The treatise that I herewith submit to the public is an old piece of work and was originally intended as part of a comprehensive exposition of Epicurean, Stoic, and Sceptic philosophy.a At present, however, political and philosophical arrangements of an entirely different kind prevent me from bringing such a task to completion.b ...

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Comments on the Latest Prussian Censorship Instruction

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pp. 109-131

We are not one of those malcontents who, even before the appearance of the new Prussian censorship decree, exclaim: Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes.a On the contrary, since an examination of already promulgated laws is approved in the new instruction, even if it should prove not to agree with the government's views, we are making a start with this at once. ...

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Proceedings of the Sixth Rhine Province Assembly. First Article. Debates on Freedom of the Press and Publication of the Proceedings of the Assembly of the Estates

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pp. 132-181

To the amazement of all writing and reading Germany the Preussische Staats-Zeitung one fine Berlin spring morning published its self-confession.46 Of course, it chose an elegant, diplomatic, not exactly amusing, form for its confession. It gave itself the appearance of wanting to hold up the mirror for its sisters to recognise themselves; ...

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The Question of Centralisation in Itself and with Regard to the Supplement to No. 137 of the Rheinische Zeitung

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pp. 182-183

The fate which a question of the time has in common with every question justified by its content, and therefore rational, is that the question and not the answer constitutes the main difficulty. True criticism, therefore, analyses the questions and not the answers. ...

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The Leading Article in No. 179 of the Kölnische Zeitung

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pp. 184-202

Up to now we have respected the Kölnische Zeitung, if not as the "organ of the Rhenish intelligentsia" at any rate as the Rhenish "information sheet"a We regarded above all its, "leading political articles" as a means, both wise and select, for making politics repugnant to the reader, ...

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The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law

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pp. 203-210

It is commonly held that the historical school is a reaction against the frivolous spirit of the eighteenth century. The currency of this view is in inverse ratio to its truth. In fact, the eighteenth century had only one product, the essential character of which is frivolity, and this sole frivolous product is the historical school. ...

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Yet Another Word on Bruno Bauer und die Akademische Lehrfreiheit by Dr. O. F. Gruppe, Berlin, 1842

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pp. 211-214

If someone in Germany wanted to write a comedy of dilettantism, Herr Dr. O. F. Gruppe would be an indispensable character in it. Fate has equipped him with that iron tenacity which great men cannot do without, least of all the great men of dilettantism. ...

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Communism and the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung

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pp. 215-221

Cologne, October 15. No. 284 of the Augsburg newspaper has been so clumsy as to claim it has discovered that the Rheinische Zeitung is a Prussian woman Communist, true not a real Communist, but nevertheless one who in her imagination coquettes with communism and ogles it in a platonic fashion. ...

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Communism and the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung. Editorial Note

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pp. 222-223

Cologne, October 22. Following the reprint by the Rheinische Zeitung No. 292a of an article from the Mannheimer Abendzeitung "from Pfalz, October 12", which begins with the words: ...

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Proceedings of the Sixth Rhine Province Assembly. Third Article Debates on the Law on Thefts of Wood

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pp. 224-263

So far we have described two most important state acts of the Provincial Assembly, namely, its confusion over freedom of the press and its unfreedom in regard to the confusion.89 We have now come down to ground level. Before we proceed to the really earthly question in all its life-size, the question of the parcellation of landed property, ...

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In Connection with the Article " Failures of the Liberal Opposition in Hanover". Editorial Note

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pp. 264-265

Since the expression "liberal opposition" in the tide originated not with the author of the article in question, but with the editorial board, the latter takes this occasion to add something to explain this designation. ...

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Communal Reform and the Kölnische Zeitung

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pp. 266-273

Cologne, November 7. We have not considered it appropriate when discussing the question of the Communal Reform to take into account what has appeared on the subject in the provincial papers, and in particular in the Kölnische Zeitung. ...

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The Divorce Bill. Editorial Note

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pp. 274-276

The criticism of the Divorce Bill given here has been outlined from the standpoint of Rhenish jurisprudence just as the criticism published earlier (see the Supplement to No. 310 of the Rhein. Ztg.a) was based on the standpoint and practice of old Prussian jurisprudence. A third criticism remains to be made, a criticism from a pre-eminently general point of view, that of the philosophy of law. ...

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A Correspondent of the Kölnische Zeitung vs. the Rheinische Zeitung

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pp. 277-279

Cologne, November 16. The stoutest champion of the "separation of town and countryside" in the Kölnische Zeitung today again raises his rumbling voice, and today it is not the province but the Rheinische Zeitung which he selects for the honour of being the victim of his private intelligence and his private illusions. ...

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Cabinet Order on the Daily Press

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pp. 280-281

Cologne, November 15. Today's Kölnische Zeitung carries the following royal Cabinet Order, which was sent to all provincial ministries in the course of last month: ...

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Renard's Letter to Oberpräsident von Schaper

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pp. 282-285

Through Regierungspräsident Herr von Gerlach in Cologne, on the 12th of this month, Your Excellency has put before me a rescript of the censorship ministry and, in addition, two decrees, and called for my observations on them to be minuted. Considering the importance of the explanations demanded of me, rather than making a statement to be minuted, ...

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The Industrialists of Hanover and Protective Tariffs

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p. 286

We can acknowledge the historical basis of the author's reasoning, and we can further concede, as the facts testify, that during the last 400-500 years England, especially, has done a great deal to protect its industry and crafts, although we need not necessarily agree with the system of protective tariffs. ...

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The Attitude of Herwegh and Ruge to " The Free"

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p. 287

Berlin, November 25. The Elberfelder Zeitung and, from it, the Didaskalia contain the news that Herwegh has visited the society of "The Free", but found it beneath all criticism. Herwegh has not visited this society, and therefore could have found it neither beneath nor above criticism. ...

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The Polemical Tactics of the Augsburg Newspaper

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pp. 288-291

Cologne, November 29. In its occasional polemic against the Rheinische Zeitung, the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung employs tactics which are as characteristic as they are laudable and which, if consistently pursued, cannot fail to impress the superficial section of the public. To every rebuff merited by its attacks on the principles and trend of the Rheinische Zeitung, ...

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The Supplement to Nos. 335 and 336 of the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung on the Commissions of the Estates in Prussia

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pp. 292-306

Cologne, December 10. In the Supplement to No. 335 of the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung there is a not uninteresting essay on the commissions of the estates in Prussia. Since we wish to criticise it, we must preface our remarks by stressing a simple principle which, however, is often overlooked in a passionate party controversy. ...

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The Divorce Bill

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pp. 307-310

Cologne, December 18. In regard to the Divorce Bill the Rheinische Zeitung has adopted quite a special position, and so far no proof has been given anywhere that this position is untenable. The Rheinische Zeitung agrees with the Bill inasmuch as it considers the hitherto existing Prussian legislation on marriage immoral, the hitherto innumerable and frivolous grounds for divorce impermissible, ...

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The Ban on the Leipziger Allgemeine Zeitung

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pp. 311-330

Cologne, December 31. The German press begins the New Year with apparently gloomy prospects. The ban that has just been imposed on the Leipziger Allgemeine Zeitung in the states of Prussia is surely a sufficiently convincing refutation of all the complacent dreams of gullible people about big concessions in the future. ...

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Announcement by the Editors of the Rheinische Zeitung of Their Reply to Oberpräsident von Schaper

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p. 331

Cologne, January 2. Since the "corrections" made by Herr Oberpräsident von Schaper and the explanations requested of the Rheinische Zeitung have been widely aired in the press, we take this occasion to state that our reply, which has been delayed only because a number of investigations have become necessary, will follow in the coming week. ...

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Justification of the Correspondent from the Mosel

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pp. 332-358

From the Mosel, January. Nos. 346 and 348 of the Rheinische Zeitung contain two articles of mine, one of which deals with the distress due to lack of firewood in the Mosel region, and the other the special sympathy of the Mosel population for the royal Cabinet Order of December 24, 1841, and for the resulting greater freedom of the press.129 ...

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Polemical Articles Against the Allgemeine Zeitung

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pp. 359-360

The lady of Augsburg has reached the stage when the fair sex itself no longer dares to simulate youth, and now has no more terrible accusation to make against her sisters than that of youth. In No. 360, however, the worthy Sibyl's means of estimating age has surprisingly misled her. ...

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Marginal Notes to the Accusations of the Ministerial Rescript

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pp. 361-365

It is obvious that a trend does not become reprehensible merely because the government declares it to be so. Even the Copernican system of the universe was not only found reprehensible by the supreme authority of the time, but was actually condemned. Furthermore, it is everywhere the law that the accuser should provide the proof. ...

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The Local Election of Deputies to the Provincial Assembly

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pp. 366-369

Cologne, March 9. The Rhein—und Mosel-Zeitung, which is so modest as to be neither "the most widely read newspaper of the Rhine Province" nor an "exponent of political thought", remarks in connection with the election of deputies from the city of Cologne,142 inter alia: ...

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The Rhein—und Mosel-Zeitung as Grand Inquisitor

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pp. 370-372

Cologne, March 11. A few days ago the Rhein—und Mosel-Zeitung published a bull of excommunication against the pious Kölnische Zeitung. Today the Trier'sche Zeitung stands before the court of inquisition in Koblenz, and rightly so. ...

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Stylistic Exercises of the Rhein—und Mosel-Zeitung

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pp. 373-375

Cologne, March 13. The Rhein—und Mosel-Zeitung has replied today146 to our article of March 9 on the deputies to the Provincial Assembly.a We do not want to hold back from our readers some samples of this masterpiece of style. Among other delicacies is the following: ...

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Announcement. March 17, 1843

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p. 376

The undersigned declares that, owing to the present conditions of censorship, he has retired as from today from the editorial board of the Rheinische Zeitung. ...

Letters

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1. To Carl Friedrich Bachmann. April 6, 1841

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p. 379

I send you herewith a dissertation for a doctor's degree on the difference between the natural philosophy of Democritus and the natural philosophy of Epicurus,a and enclose the litterae petitoriae,b curriculum vitae, my leaving certificates from the universities of Bonn and Berlin, and, finally, the legal fees of twelve friedrichsdors. ...

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2. To Oscar Ludwig Bernhard Wolff. April 7, 1841

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p. 380

In expressing my most sincere thanks for your great kindness in fulfilling my request, I take the liberty of informing you that I have just sent my dissertation, together with the accompanying material, to the faculty of philosophy, and I beg you, in accordance with your kind offer, to be so good as to hasten the dispatch of the diploma. ...

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3. To Arnold Ruge. February 10, 1842

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p. 381

I take the liberty of sending you a small contribution for the Deutsche Jahrbücher in the form of the enclosed criticism of the censorship instruction.a ...

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4. To Arnold Ruge. March 5, 1842

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p. 382

I fully agree with the plan for the Anekdota philosophica151 and also think it would be better to include my name among the others. A demonstration of this kind, by its very nature, precludes all anonymity. Those gentlemen must see that one's conscience is clear. ...

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5. To Arnold Ruge. March 20, 1842

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pp. 383-386

Bauer once had the same sort of scene with Eichhorn in Berlin as you had with the Minister of the Interior.d As orators, these gentlemen are as alike as two peas. On the other hand, what is exceptional is that philosophy speaks intelligibly with the state wisdom of these over-assured scoundrels, ...

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6. To Arnold Ruge. April 27, 1842

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pp. 387-388

You must not become impatient if my contributions are delayed for a few days more—but only for a few days. Bauer will probably inform you orally that this month, owing to all kinds of external muddles, it has been almost impossible for me to work. ...

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7. To Arnold Ruge. July 9, 1842

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pp. 389-390

If events had not apologised for me, I would have abandoned any attempt at an excuse. It stands to reason that I regard it as an honour to contribute to the Anekdota and only unpleasant extraneous circumstances prevented me from sending you my articles. ...

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8. To Dagobert Oppenheim. Approximately August 25, 1842

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pp. 391-392

I enclose a manuscript from Ruge. No. 1 is not usable, but No. 2, on the state of affairs in Saxony, you will probably be able to use.164 ...

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9. To Arnold Ruge. November 30, 1842

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pp. 393-395

As you already know, every day the censorship mutilates us mercilessly, so that frequently the newspaper is hardly able to appear. Because of this, a mass of articles by "The Free" have perished. But I have allowed myself to throw out as many articles as the censor, for Meyen and Co. sent us heaps of scribblings, ...

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10. To Arnold Ruge. January 25, 1843

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pp. 396-397

You probably already know that the Rheinische Zeitung has been banned, suspended, and is under sentence of death.170 The termination of its life has been fixed for the end of March. During this period of grace before execution, the newspaper is being subjected to a double censorship. ...

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11. To Arnold Ruge. March 13, 1843

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pp. 398-402

As soon as it is at all possible I shall set my course straight for Leipzig. I have just had a talk with Stucke, who seems to have been greatly impressed by most of the statesmen in Berlin. This Dr. Stucke is an extremely good-natured man. ...

From the Preparatory Materials: Notebooks on Epicurean Philosophy

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First Notebook

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pp. 405-416

The following passages represent Epicurus' views on spiritual nature, the state. The contract he considers as the basis, and accordingly, only utility as the end. ...

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Second Notebook

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pp. 417-441

Here we must observe the principle of the thinkable in order, on the one hand, to maintain the freedom of self-consciousness, and, on the other hand, to attribute to God freedom from any determination. ...

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Third Notebook

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pp. 442-463

Here too, Plutarch fails to understand the logic of Epicurus; it is important to note anyhow that he does not see a specific transition from the voluptas corporis ad voluptatem animi,a and Epicurus' attitude in this respect should be more closely defined. ...

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Fourth Notebook

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pp. 464-478

While it really must be admitted that Colotes knows how to feel out an opponent's weaknesses, Plutarch lacks philosophical bearings to such an extent that he does not even know what it is all about, especially when the proposition of abstract identity as the death of all life is formulated and censured. ...

Fifth Notebook

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pp. 479-488

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Sixth Notebook

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pp. 489-500

As in the history of philosophy there are nodal points which raise philosophy in itself to concretion, apprehend abstract principles in a totality, and thus break off the rectilinear process, so also there are moments when philosophy turns its eyes to the external world, and no longer apprehends it, but, as a practical person, weaves, as it were, intrigues with the world, ...

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Seventh Notebook

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pp. 501-509

(After relating that the books of Protagoras, in which he denied the existence of the gods, had been burnt in the assembly of the people and he himself driven out of the country, Cotta continued:) ...

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Plan of Hegel's Philosophy of Nature

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pp. 510-514

In the determination of juxtaposition, of abstract singularisation, outside which is the unity of form, this as merely an ideal being-in-self, matter and its ideal system. ...

Early Literary Experiments

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pp. 515-530

A Book of Verse Dedicated by Marx to His Father

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pp. 531-634

Appendices: Birth Certificate

Gymnasium Examination Papers Written by Marx

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pp. 636-642

Certificate of Maturity for Pupil of the Gymnasium in Trier Karl Marx

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pp. 643-644

Father's Letters (November 1835- June 1836)

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pp. 645-656

Certificate of Release from Bonn University

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pp. 657-660

Father's Letters (November 1836- February 1838)

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pp. 661-694

Jenny von Westphalen to Karl Marx [1839- 1840]

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pp. 695-698

Record Sheet Filled in by Marx

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pp. 699-702

Leaving Certificate from Berlin University

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pp. 703-704

Recommendatory Reference on the Dissertation of Karl Marx

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pp. 705-706

Jenny von Westphalen to Karl Marx. August 10,1841

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pp. 707-709

Cologne Citizens' Petition for the Continuance of the Rheinische Zeitung

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pp. 710-711

Minutes of the General Meeting of Shareholders of the Rheinische Zeitung. February 12, 1843

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pp. 712-724

Humble Petition from the Shareholders of the Rheinische Zeitung Company for the Continuance of the Rheinische Zeitung

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pp. 725-726

Jenny von Westphalen to Karl Marx. March 1843

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pp. 727-730

Notes and Indices

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pp. 731-805