Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-v

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

There are many people who inspire and motivate one to complete a book. While it often feels like a solitary journey, it rarely is. I owe the greatest debt to my mother. While always acknowledging the complex problems that writing this book would entail and the criticism it may endure, she...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-19

For a lonely band of human rights activists, Chechnya represents one of the greatest human rights catastrophes of the post–cold war era. In May 2001, the Committee on Conscience of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum placed Chechnya on its Genocide Alert list, which had...

Part One: The Crimes

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1. The Bombing, 1999-2000

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pp. 23-49

Chechnya was a failing state in the interim period between the first Chechen war (1994– 96) and the beginning of the subsequent conflict in September 1999. When Russia’s armed forces entered the small republic for a second time that autumn, they were penetrating a po litically fractured...

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2. The Zachistka, 2000-2002

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pp. 50-76

The atmosphere of fear manifested by the winter bombing campaign took on a different shape beginning in the spring of 2000. Chechen civilians inherited a new stage of warfare, embodied in the ubiquitous zachistka, or sweep operation. Officially deployed to root out separatist forces...

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3. The Disappearances, 2002-5

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pp. 77-97

The visual hallmarks of the second Chechen war manifested in the zachistka—the sealed villages, trucks laden with looted property, and temporary filtration points on the outskirts of villages—began to diminish by the summer of 2003. Under growing pressure from the Council...

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4. Finding Refuge

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pp. 98-120

The bombing campaign over the winter of 1999–2000 resulted in the displacement of more than 250,0001 Chechen civilians across the border into neighboring Ingushetia. This mass exodus quickly brought into question the very...

Part Two: The Response

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5. Chechen Retaliation

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pp. 123-143

Retaliation for the aggression imposed on Chechnya by the Russian armed forces took various forms and the Chechen separatist movement was far from innocent in its response. Its acts of revenge were at once provocative, desperate, dramatic, and cruel. Such acts evoke little sympathy...

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6. Civil Society Reacts

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pp. 144-164

Civil society in Moscow and Chechnya faced a challenge of a different order when the second Chechen war broke out in September 1999. Without the mass public support that had defined their protests during the first war, Russia’s burgeoning civil society encountered the dark side of...

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7. International Failure

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pp. 165-182

Relations between Western Europe, the United States, and Russia did not fundamentally change over the course of the second Chechen war. There were many platitudes and forthright condemnations regarding the indiscriminate violence being used by the Russian armed forces and...

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8. Seeking Justice in Europe: Chechens at the European Court of Human Rights

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pp. 183-203

Chechen civilians have faced a distinct pattern of discrimination in the Russian legal system. The explanatory framework for how and why this is taking place is complex and must be sought on multiple levels. The picture of a systemic failure to prosecute perpetrators of massive human...

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Conclusion

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pp. 204-211

This book has sought to describe the wide-ranging human rights violations of the second Chechen war—the bombings, summary executions, disappearances, and torture perpetrated by the Russian armed forces— and Chechen retaliation. The point of this work has been to move beyond a...

Notes

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pp. 213-240

Bibliography

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pp. 241-263

Index

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pp. 265-271