Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-v

Contents

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p. vii

Illustrations

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p. ix

Tables

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p. xi

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Preface and Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xx

The debate about affirmative action remains one of the most contentious and impassioned in American politics. Is affirmative action the grossest betrayal or highest embodiment of American values? Has the policy had beneficial effects, or has it merely exacerbated the problems it was meant...

Abbreviations

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pp. xxi-xxii

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1. On the Origins of Affirmative Action: Puzzles and Perspectives

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pp. 1-31

The years after the Second World War were a time of optimism and confidence for most Americans. Before the breakout of armed hostilities, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt had characterized America’s growing involvement in the conflict overseas as a valiant defense of “four essential...

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2. The Strange Career of Fair Employment Practices in National Politics and Policy, 1941–1960

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pp. 32-87

The year 1941 marks a watershed in U.S. history. It began with President Franklin D. Roosevelt reaffirming his “all-out short-of-war” policy toward the mounting conflict across the Atlantic. Still wary of drawing isolationist criticism, FDR continued to balk at the prospect of sending...

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3. Experimenting with Civil Rights: The Politics of Ives-Quinn in New York State, 1941–1945

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pp. 88-114

The legislative chamber was filled with many more people than usual. Hundreds of observers sat in the audience, and scores of others stood stiffly in the back of the room, two to three rows deep. A civil rights bill outlawing job discrimination had been introduced a few weeks before,...

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4. Laboratories of Democracy? The Unsteady March of Fair Employment in the States, 1945–1964

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pp. 115-169

Most liberals must have felt a burst of optimism at the outset of Truman’s second term. Harry had given the Republicans hell. Running from behind during the last weeks of the historic 1948 election, he had determinedly gone on the offensive, railing against the GOP-controlled “do nothing”...

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5. I Have a Dream Deferred: The Fall of Fair Employment and the Rise of Affirmative Action

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pp. 170-229

As late afternoon turned into dusk on July 2, 1964, Lyndon B. Johnson must have felt a keen sense of exultation as he strode into the East Room of the White House. It was the zenith of his short tenure as president. After clearing a path through the treacherous political thickets of the...

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6. Conclusions and Implications

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pp. 230-254

Studies of political development are their most compelling when it can be shown why politics and policies took the particular directions they did—and not other directions they plausibly might have. Without due consideration of historically grounded counterfactuals, arguments about the origins...

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Appendix

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pp. 255-286

Wanting to broaden the audience for The Fifth Freedom, I decided to limit the amount of methodological discussion in the main text. What follows is a specialized appendix aimed at readers who would like to learn more about the evidence on which I base major claims in the body of the book....

Abbreviations in the Notes

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pp. 287-290

Notes

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pp. 291-375

Index

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pp. 377-395