Series Page, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-xii

Figures

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pp. xiii-xiv

Tables

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pp. xv-xvi

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Preface

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pp. xvii-xx

The emerging tapestry of complex systems research is being formed by localized individual efforts that are becoming subsumed as part of a greater pattern that holds a beauty and coherence that belies the lack of an omniscient designer. ...

Part I Introduction

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1 Introduction

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pp. 3-8

Adaptive social systems are composed of interacting, thoughtful (but perhaps not brilliant) agents. It would be difficult to date the exact moment that such systems first arose on our planet—perhaps it was when early single-celled organisms began to compete with one another for resources or, more likely, much earlier when chemical interactions in the primordial soup began to self-replicate. ...

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2 Complexity in Social Worlds

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pp. 9-32

We are surrounded by complicated social worlds. These worlds are composed of multitudes of incommensurate elements, which often make them hard to navigate and, ultimately, difficult to understand. We would, however, like to make a distinction between complicated worlds and complex ones. ...

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Part II Preliminaries

The next two chapters are devoted to some more general issues in complex adaptive social systems. The first covers broader issues surrounding scientific modeling. Throughout this book we explore various modeling techniques, and thus having a solid foundation from which to consider such work is a necessity. ...

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3 Modeling

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pp. 35-43

We begin with a discussion of the basics of scientific modeling. This topic is so fundamental to the scientific enterprise that it is often assumed to be known by, rather than explicitly taught to, students (with the exception of a high school lecture or two on the “scientific method”). ...

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4 On Emergence

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pp. 44-54

Much of the focus of complex systems is on how systems of interacting agents can lead to emergent phenomena. Unfortunately, emergence is one of those complex systems ideas that exists in a well-trodden, but relatively untracked, bog of discussion. ...

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Part III Computational Modeling

In the next two chapters we discuss the use of computational models as a theoretical tool, in particular in the modeling of social systems. Over the past decade or so, what was once considered the fringe has become the frontier, and computational models have become much more widely accepted among social scientists. ...

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5 Computation as Theory

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pp. 57-77

For many centuries, houses were constructed by their occupants with perhaps the assistance of a few skilled neighbors. This vernacular architecture led to the creation of unique homes, each reflecting the whims of its builders. Various additions and deletions would accrue over time as the needs of the family changed. ...

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6 Why Agent-Based Objects?

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pp. 78-90

Agent-based object models offer a new theoretical portal from which to explore complex adaptive social systems. Like any theoretical tool, these models have comparative advantages for certain types of explorations. ...

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Part IV Models of Complex Adaptive Social Systems

In the chapters that follow, we explore a variety of models of complex adaptive social systems. We have a few goals for these explorations. First, and foremost, we want to uncover key insights into the behavior of complex adaptive social systems. ...

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7 A Basic Framework

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pp. 93-113

Complex adaptive social systems are composed of interacting, thoughtful (but perhaps not brilliant) agents. Given this underlying structure, models of these systems, especially those that rely on agent-based objects, tend to confront a common set of issues. ...

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8 Complex Adaptive Social Systems in One Dimension

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pp. 114-140

We begin with a set of very simple models designed to illuminate some basic issues inherent in complex adaptive social systems. In Abbott’s Flatland, geometric figures confined to living in a two-dimensional world gain insight into the third-dimension when a sphere slowly passes through their plane. ...

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9 Social Dynamics

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pp. 141-177

To further our investigation of complex adaptive social systems, here we create some models with more elaborate agent dynamics. These dynamics allow us to investigate new realms of social behavior, and the resulting models can be used to explore topics such as racial segregation, the role of expectations on behavior, and city formation. ...

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10 Evolving Automata

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pp. 178-199

Models where agents adapt their behavior based on experience are very useful in the exploration of complex adaptive social systems. In many social systems, agents are not static behavioral drones; rather, they alter their behavior based on past feedback or the anticipation of future events. ...

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11 Some Fundamentals of Organizational Decision Making

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pp. 200-210

Organizations composed of collections of agents influence the behavior of systems ranging from biochemical and neurological pathways to political parties and firms. Like all decision-making entities, these organizations must formulate productive actions based on information from their environment. ...

Part V Conclusions

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12 Social Science in Between

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pp. 213-226

Here we discuss the impact of complex adaptive systems on the social sciences. Our book’s central theme, “The Interest in Between,” provides a framing for this discussion. The complex adaptive social systems view of the world allows us to explore the spaces between simple and strategic behavior, between pairs and infinities of agents, ...

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Epilogue

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pp. 227-230

Here we have explored models that from simple beginnings result in systems imbued with scientific beauty and mystery. The precise and simple details of each model are fully responsible for, yet simultaneously rather removed from, the majesty of the resulting outcomes. ...

Appendix A: An Open Agenda For Complex Adaptive Social Systems

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pp. 231-244

Appendix B: Practices for Computational Modeling

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pp. 245-254

Bibliography

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pp. 255-260

Index

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pp. 261-264