Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. i-iv

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. v-x

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xiv

Complex population dynamics such as limit cycles and chaos are intrinsically fascinating. Why do organisms become extremely abundant one year, and then apparently disappear a few years later? Why do population outbreaks in certain species in certain locations happen...

Mathematical Symbols

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xv-xvii

PART I. THEORY

read more

1. Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 3-16

Population dynamics is the study of how and why population numbers change in time and space. Thus, population dynamicists document the empirical patterns of population change and attempt to determine the mechanisms explaining the observed patterns. Temporal population...

read more

2. Population Dynamics from First Principles

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 17-46

Ecologists rarely discuss the philosophical foundations of research into population dynamics. Foundational issues tend to work in the background shaping inquiry, and are rarely hauled out into the daylight to be closely examined (Cooper 2001). Several controversies in...

read more

3. Single-Species Populations

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 47-77

In this chapter I present an overview of mathematical models for single-species populations. The basic format is to show and explain model equations, and then to discuss the dynamical behaviors that the models can exhibit. As I stated in the preface, I will not discuss...

read more

4. Trophic Interactions

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 78-136

Consumer-resource interactions are inherently prone to oscillations and are, therefore, the obvious suspect to investigate as a potential mechanism of a population cycle. However, not all models of trophic interactions exhibit cycles. The purpose of this chapter is to survey...

read more

5. Connecting Mathematical Theory to Empirical Dynamics

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 137-159

In this chapter, I review different kinds of dynamical behaviors that ecological models can exhibit, and interpret these mathematical predictions in terms of observable variables. The basic premise underlying the material here is that inasmuch as mathematical models reflect...

PART II. DATA

read more

6. Empirical Approaches: An Overview

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 163-172

There are three general approaches to studying population fluctuations: statistical analysis of observational (e.g., time-series) data, mathematical modelingof mechanisms, and experiments. Until recently, ecologists (at least, in North America) have tended to...

read more

7. Phenomenological Time-Series Analysis

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 173-196

At the start of an investigation into population dynamics of some specific system we typically do not know enough about it to begin formulating intelligent hypotheses about its behavior. Thus, the first phase of the investigation should be exploratory, and we need to answer the...

read more

8. Fitting Mechanistic Models

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 197-209

While the previous chapter focused on exploring the structure of density dependence, without worrying too much about the mechanistic content, in this chapter we shall consider more mechanistic approaches to analyzing time-series data. Recollect that phenomenological...

PART III. CASE STUDIES

read more

9. Larch Budmoth

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 213-238

If there were a beauty contest for complex population dynamics, then population oscillations of the larch budmoth (LBM), Zeiraphera diniana, in the Swiss Alps would be a credible contender for first place (figure 9.1). Not only are these oscillations remarkably regular, but...

read more

10. Southern Pine Beetle

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 239-271

The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, belongs to the family of scolytid bark beetles. Its generic name, Dendroctonus, can be loosely translated as “tree death.” This is an apt name for this beetle, because it is the most important agent of mortality for several...

read more

11. Red Grouse

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 272-295

Periodic dynamics are not common in bird populations (Kendall et al. 1998: table 1). A major exception to this general pattern is birds of the grouse family (Tetraonidae, order Galliformes) (Middleton 1934; Williams 1954). Population cycles have been reported in Scottish rock...

read more

12. Voles and Other Rodents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 296-343

Ecologists who are not working on small rodents may consider that the subject of population cycles in voles and lemmings remains as muddled as ever, if not increasingly more muddled. Small rodent ecologists appear to be in the business of proposing new hypotheses rather...

read more

13. Snowshoe Hare

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 344-364

The snowshoe hare–lynx population cycles, like cycles in rodents, lie at the very beginnings of the systematic study of complex population dynamics (Finerty 1980). Although rodent cycles chronologically were first to be noticed by Charles Elton (see section 1.1.1), at the...

read more

14. Ungulate

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 365-382

Mechanisms underlying population dynamics of North American cervids (such as white-tailed deer, reindeer, elk, and moose) are a subject of some controversy. The current debate centers on the importance of predation versus interactions with food, and the dynamical...

read more

15. General Conclusions

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 383-396

Now that we have done so much work trying to understand the specific mechanisms responsible for complex population dynamics in each of the case studies (chapters 9–14), it is time to step back and see if any patterns emerge. Table 15.1 brings together the conclusions...

Glossary

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 397-404

References

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 405-436

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 437-450