Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xviii

...by a conference they led in Bayreuth, Germany, this book used the theoretical tools, experimental results, and observational data that had accumulated in the intervening decades to re-explore questions originally raised by some of the great minds of the discipline, including Charles Darwin...

List of Contributors

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pp. xix-xx

List of Figures

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pp. xxi-xxiv

List of Tables

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pp. xxv-xxvi

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1. Opening Remarks

Ann P. Kinzig

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pp. 1-6

...Darwin first proposed a connection between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in 1859. Interest in the topic has mainly waned—sometimes waxed—in the time interval since. In the last few decades, however, the waxing has had the upper hand, and a quick trip through an electronic...

PART 1 Empirical Progress

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2. Biodiversity, Composition, and Ecosystem Processes: Theory and Concepts

David Tilman and Clarence Lehman

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pp. 9-41

...These individuals, and others of that era, offered a variety of reasons why the rates of various community and ecosystem processes, especially those related to stability and community invasibility, might depend on diversity. As was the tradition of the era, these concepts were mainly developed...

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3. Experimental and Observational Studies of Diversity, Productivity, and Stability

David Tilman, Johannes Knops, David Wedin, and Peter Reich

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pp. 42-70

...many alternative concepts and theories have been proposed linking the rate and direction of ecosystem processes to diversity. In this chapter, we evaluate these hypotheses by comparing their predictions to results of experimental and field studies. We first summarize experimental and field studies, and then present detailed analyses of recent...

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4. Biodiversity and the Functioning of Grassland Ecosystems: Multi-Site Comparisons

Andy Hector

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pp. 71-95

...An important goal of science is repeatability. This can prove difficult in ecology because environmental conditions such as the weather are never constant. Consequently, when faced with a small number of studies from a new area of research it is difficult to know how general the results are or whether they constitute special cases. When results conflict, does it reflect real differences in...

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5. Autotrophic-Heterotrophic Interactions and Their Impacts on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

Shahid Naeem

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pp. 96-119

...the biota can be considered a single protoplasmic realm. To transform a geochemical model of ecosystem functioning into a biogeochemical model requires adding this “protoplasm,” whose metabolic processes modify geochemical processes. A logical starting point for a biogeochemical...

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6. Empirical Evidence for Biodiversity–Ecosystem Functioning Relationships

Bernhard Schmid, Jasmin Joshi, and Felix Schl¨apfer

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pp. 120-150

...The implementation of ecosystem models relating biodiversity to ecosystem functioning requires empirically derived parameter values. We assemble and summarize these parameter values by reviewing empirical studies. From this review, it becomes obvious which parameters...

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7. The Transition from Sampling to Complementarity

Stephen Pacala and David Tilman

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pp. 151-166

...argued that an essential feature of diversity is that it increases the probability that species with superior traits will be present and that a variety of processes in nature operate approximately like the sampling mechanism. These include anthropogenic species removals and natural biogeographic...

PART 2 Theoretical Extensions

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8. Introduction to Theory and the Common Ecosystem Model

Stephen Pacala and Ann P. Kinzig

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pp. 169-174

...Ultimately, the form of the diversity–functioning relationship in particular systems must depend on the mechanisms permitting species coexistence in those systems. Do those characteristics permitting competitive dominance also permit maximum functioning? How do those characteristics permitting coexistence in the presence...

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9. Successional Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

Ann P. Kinzig and Stephen Pacala

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pp. 175-212

...Any undergraduate in an introductory ecology course can list and explain the different kinds of succession (if keeping up with the material). The principal distinctions of primary versus secondary succession and competition versus facilitation have not changed substantially in several decades...

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10. Environmental Niches and Ecosystem Functioning

Peter Chesson, Stephen Pacala, and Claudia Neuhauser

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pp. 213-245

...The physical environment is strikingly variable in time and space, providing challenges and opportunities for the organisms in any ecosystem. At first thought, such temporal and spatial variation might be expected to be disruptive to ecosystem functioning. However, the extent...

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11. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: The Role of Trophic Interactions and the Importance of System Openness

Robert D. Holt and Michel Loreau

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pp. 246-262

...A central theme in ecology is that population dynamics, species coexistence, and, ultimately, the entire organization of communities are all profoundly influenced by the complex web of trophic interactions that binds the lives of species together (Pimm 1982; Polis and Winemiller...

PART 3 Applications and Future Directions

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12. Linking Soil Microbial Communities and Ecosystem Functioning

Teri C. Balser, Ann P. Kinzig, and Mary K. Firestone

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pp. 265-293

...Microorganisms decompose organic matter and transform mineral nutrients in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the centrality of microbes, scientists often study ecosystem functioning without explicit reference to the microbial populations carrying out soil processes...

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13. How Relevant to Conservation Are Studies Linking Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning?

Sharon P. Lawler, Juan J. Armesto, and Peter Kareiva

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pp. 294-313

...of the goals and purposes of conservation. Most basic research papers on biodiversity claim to be germane to conservation practice. Many have experimental designs that are meant to mimic reductions in local biodiversity, an issue that is clearly central to conservation...

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14. Looking Back and Peering Forward

Ann P. Kinzig, Stephen Pacala, and David Tilman

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pp. 314-330

...In this volume, we have summarized the empirical evidence for a connection between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. We have been able to extend those empirical demonstrations with theoretical analyses that aid in understanding when and under what circumstances...

References

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pp. 331-358

Index

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pp. 359-366