Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-x

Abbreviations

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pp. xi-xvi

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Introduction

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pp. 1-22

This book is a study of lollardy, a religious movement associated with the Oxford heresiarch John Wyclif (ca. 1328–84). Maligned by contemporary chroniclers, condemned as heretical, then later celebrated as brave harbingers of the Reformation by protestant historiographers, Wyclif and his followers have been more noised about than read...

Part One

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1. The Lollard Pastoral Program

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pp. 25-62

At some point in the 1390s, a parish priest in the West Midlands formulated a large ambition: to reconfigure traditional pastoral teaching so that it would reflect his new convictions and lead his own little flock toward salvation.1 What he produced in pursuit of this goal has broad implications for our understanding of the lollard movement. 2...

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2. God’s Law

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pp. 63-98

Near the end of the final chapter of the General Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible, as the writer’s defense of biblical translation comes to an end, he expresses his hopes for the effect that English translation might have upon the people of England. Until now they have been deprived of access to scripture, whether because of the negligence of the clergy or their own sinfulness...

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3. Lollard Prayer

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pp. 99-134

How did lollards pray? Until recently, there was little interest in this question. Yet the historical study of religion asks different questions now than it did in the past. Sharpened interest in religious practice has produced attentive studies of local variations in worship, sacramental practices, saints’ cults, the uses of written prayers, and so on...

Part Two

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4. Lollard Tales

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pp. 137-165

In this chapter I investigate a very common and widespread characteristic of lollard writings: their use of narrative forms, especially but not only drawn from the bible, to give their readers models for holy living. In these narratives they provide their readers with a training in feeling. Lollard writers use stories, that is, to show their readers how to feel like saints...

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5. Lollard Parabiblia

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pp. 166-202

The governing intention of the Wycliffite bible translation project has often been asserted or assumed. Lollards translated the entire text of the bible, Hebrew Bible and New Testament, into English because they wanted laymen and laywomen to be able to read all of its very own words for themselves, rather than having to rely on adulterated versions, interlarded with glosses and exempla that distort its message, as for example in sermons and pastoralia...

Part Three

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6. Moral Fantasie

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pp. 205-238

begin with two lengthy quotations from late medieval English writers concerned to educate their vernacular readers in biblical exegesis. Both develop a metaphor of reading the bible with proper understanding as eating a sweet food, hidden at first, that pleases and nourishes the soul...

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7. Lollard Forms of Living

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pp. 239-272

This final chapter turns to examine in depth a set of lollardy’s most self-consciously literary writings: writings that are attentive to literary style and rhetoric and that develop with unusual thoroughness the possibilities of speaking “gostili.” What they mean by “gostili” speech is nothing new for the readers of this book: it is the lollard habit of redefining in spiritual or metaphorical terms a concept usually presented as material, bodily, or closely defined by institutional convention.1...

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Conclusion

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pp. 273-284

In summary of this book’s findings, this Conclusion examines a largely neglected short text that eschews polemical declaration but that nonetheless within its short length touches on all the characteristic emphases in lollard writings that we have discovered across the course of this book, compactly providing us with an occasion to draw them together and to demonstrate how they allow us to identify and describe lollard writings more effectively...

Bibliography

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pp. 285-306

Index

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pp. 307-316

Appendix A

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pp. 317-324

Appendix B

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pp. 325-332