Cover

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Title Page, Other Works in the Series, Copyright, Dedication

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CONTENTS

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pp. vii-viii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

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pp. ix-x

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FOREWORD

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pp. xi-xiv

MADALENA, Lucı´a de la Cruz, Marı´a Je´rez, Juana, Beatriz de Robles, Leonor de Morales, Ine´s Izquierdo, Marı´a Taraiona, Marı´a Mocandali: what they all had in common was that they were women and they were Moriscas—that is, they were descendants of Muslims who were converted to Christianity in the Spain of the early sixteenth century. Because of these characteristics, they have been twice marginalized...

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. xv-xvi

SO MANY PEOPLE and organizations have provided invaluable support in the writing of this book that it is not possible to name them all. For financial support, I wish to thank especially the American Council of Learned Societies, the Dean of Faculty for Occidental College, and the Program for Cultural Cooperation Between Spain’s Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and United States Universities. Courteous and unfaltering help from staff and directors of many archives...

BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF THE MORISCOS

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pp. xvii-xviii

ABBREVIATIONS

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p. xix

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INTRODUCTION: From the Shadows

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pp. 1-18

TWENTY-FOUR SHIPS that crowded into the port of Seville in late November 1570 brought human cargo—some 5,000 women, children, and men.1 Moriscos, that is, Muslims or their descendants who had been baptized, came as defeated rebels from the Kingdom of Granada. Two years earlier Moriscos had revolted against Christian rule, their rebellion spreading quickly from the Alpujarra Mountains near Granada throughout much of Andalucia. After his armies had finally...

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CHAPTER 1: Memories, Myths, and the Handless Maiden

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pp. 19-37

MORISCOS RELOCATED from Granada in 1570 could take few material possessions with them, but they all brought memories of the past that directly shaped their sense of identity and the strategies they would use to survive in their new homes. Such memories, of course, varied widely according to generation, place of origin, class, and gender. Moreover, they differed from written history and do not necessarily...

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CHAPTER 2: Madalena’s Bath

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pp. 38-64

MORISCOS IDENTIFIED themselves not only through their myths and memories, but also through their bodies, which became the primary means that some Christians used to transform Morisco difference into deviance. Consider the case of Madalena Morisca, who stood before inquisitors of the tribunal of the Holy Office of Seville in 1609, accused of washing herself as a Muslim.1 Rather than including...

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CHAPTER 3: Dangerous Domesticity

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pp. 65-87

NOT ONLY did embodied knowledge become dangerous for Moriscos in sixteenth-century Spain; so also did their homes. As we saw in the previous chapter, Christian authorities increased their attempts to prohibit any expression of Muslim culture and religion after expelling Muslims in 1502. In response, many Moriscos transformed their homes into a space of resistance. Within this domestic space, the women in particular taught their children the prohibited Ar...

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CHAPTER 4: With Stones and Roasting Spits

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pp. 88-108

THE OUTBREAK of an armed Morisco rebellion in the Alpujarra Mountains on December 24, 1568, confirmed the suspicions of many Christians that Moriscos were dangerous internal enemies. For nearly two years the rebellious Moriscos would hold off the soldiers of Philip II, sometimes with the help of Turks and North Africans, often with the help of women. A Christian eyewitness to a January 1569 battle n...

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CHAPTER 5: Patience and Perseverance

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pp. 109-132

ROUND UP THE “Moriscos of peace,” Philip II ordered his soldiers in March 1570. Months before the War of the Alpujarras had ended, he sought to relocate these Moriscos of Granada who maintained that they had not fought against his armies. The king wanted them far from where they might provide support for the rebels. They had to lea...

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CHAPTER 6: The Castigation of Carcayona

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pp. 133-156

MORISCOS NEEDED all the help they could find in their own culture during the first decades of the seventeenth century. In 1609 Philip III declared that all Moriscos healthy enough to travel should be expelled because they “are the most obstinate of their evil sect” and inflict their children “with their bad doctrine and example.”1 His decrees to expel these people from the Spanish kingdoms between 1609...

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CHAPTER 7: Warehouse Children, Mixed Legacies, and Contested Identities

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pp. 157-180

SOLDIERSWATCHED over the expulsion of Moriscos from Seville in early 1610, some guarding the ships that took the Moriscos into exile and some posted at “the warehouses where the children were who had been taken” from them.1 The 300 Morisco children left in these warehouses symbolize both mixed legacies and contested identities that followed the expulsion. Transformed instantly into orphans at the port of embarkation, these children would be obligated to work for Old...

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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pp. 181-196

INDEX

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pp. 197-202