Cover

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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright Page, Dedication

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Contents

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p. vii

List of Illustrations and Tables

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

The notion of writing a book on the tendency of states to spread their ideologies first occurred to me some years ago. I was converting my doctoral dissertation into a book. The topic was the liberal peace, the proposition that liberal democracies do not fight one another. I noticed that, time and again in the nineteenth century, liberal elites saw themselves as playing a part in a historical drama about the spread of liberty and wanted...

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Chapter One Forcible Regime Promotion, Then and Now

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pp. 1-30

“Regime change”: The ungainly phrase was once a technical neologism used by social scientists to signify the alteration of a country’s fundamental political institutions. Now, around the world, it is a political term, and a polarizing one. For the verb “change” has come to imply the coercion of outside powers.1 Regime change requires a regime changer, and in Afghanistan...

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Chapter Two The Agents: Transnational Networks and Governments

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pp. 31-52

In this chapter and the next I flesh out my explanation for forcible regime promotion outlined in chapter 1. We observe two types of variation in the incidence of such promotions. They occur in three long temporal waves and, within each of those long waves, they vary in frequency across time and space. Most of us agree that there was something called the Cold War from roughly 1946 until roughly 1989, and yet within that four-decade-plus...

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Chapter Three The Structures: Transnational Ideological Contests

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pp. 53-78

In chapter 2, I argued that the clusters or short waves of forcible regime promotion we observe over the past half millennium are caused by periodic bouts of transnational ideological polarization. This polarization, entailing the progressive segregation of elites across countries according to which regime type they favor, gives governments incentives to use force to promote their regime, or topple a rival regime, in foreign states. Two types of event—a regime change in one state, or a war involving a great power—...

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Chapter Four Church and State, 1510–1700

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pp. 79-121

In October 1559, a French expeditionary force of 1,500 sailed north toward Scotland to aid the embattled Mary of Guise, Scotland’s Queen Regent, against a rebellion among the Scottish nobility. The French made clear that they would send 10,000 more troops if necessary to restore Mary. For 245 years, since Scotland cemented its independence from England at Bannockburn, France had been Scotland’s “auld ally.” As was typical in old-regime Europe, Scotland and France in 1559 were linked by dynastic ties that effectively...

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Chapter Five Crown, Nobility, and People, 1770–1870

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pp. 122-160

In December 1848, Louis-Napoleon, nephew of his infamous namesake, was elected President of France’s infant Second Republic by a wide margin, a few months after France’s third modern revolution had overturned the constitutional monarchy of Louis-Philippe. Louis-Napoleon was elected by a coalition of conservatives and moderates alarmed at the radicalism of the Republic’s provisional government. Judging from his writings prior...

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Chapter Six Individual, Class, and State, 1910–1990

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pp. 161-201

Following its utter defeat in May 1945, Nazi Germany was occupied by Soviet, American, and British troops, all with their own geographic zones. (France was soon ceded a zone by the Americans and British.) The Allied governments were undecided, individually and collectively, about their plans for Germany. Clearly the Nazi regime must be dismantled and Germany disabled from aggression. But elites disagreed over how far to punish and how far to rehabilitate the nation. Toward the close of his life...

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Chapter Seven Mosque and State, 1923–

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pp. 202-239

Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, and Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq, had much to fight about. They were immediate neighbors and both claimed the strategic Shatt al-Arab waterway on the Persian Gulf. Iraq was Arab, Iran, Persian. Whereas the Shah supported U.S. hegemony in the region and cooperated with Israel, Saddam leaned toward the Soviets and sought to lead the Pan-Arab movement. Notwithstanding these serious occasions for conflict, in the 1975 Algiers Agreement Saddam had relinquished Iraqi claims...

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Chapter Eight The Future of Forcible Regime Promotion

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pp. 240-271

Why do governments use force to promote domestic regimes in other countries? In a deep sense, it is because they decide that rival regimes are not the wave of the future but are only temporary, misguided attempts to organize society that will eventually exhaust themselves. Anne Morrow Lindbergh was not willing to fight to advance liberal democracy and turn back fascism because she believed that fascism was the wave of the future. As King Canute showed, it is folly to fight a wave. Morrow Lindbergh’s government...

Appendix

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pp. 272-276

Notes

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pp. 277-320

Index

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pp. 321-332

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Series Page

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pp. 333-334

Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French Revolutions Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare: The Evolution of British and After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes TribunalsFrom Wealth to Power: The Unusual Origins of America?s World Role ...