Front Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Foreword

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pp. vii-viii

...USSR and the world. Gorbachev aspired to make the Soviet regime more accountable to its citizens, more pluralistic, and more effective. He did not achieve his aims. Instead the Soviet Union collapsed altogether and Gorbachev was deposed as its last leader. After the Soviet Union dissolved in December...

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Preface

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pp. ix-x

...Moscow-anchored perspective on Russia’s political trajectory over the last decade. The perspectives of most books on the subject, almost all written in English, are shaped by debates and traditions formed in Cambridge, Washington, D.C., Palo Alto, or Oxford...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xi

...Vodopyanov and especially Katherine Kelman for their research and editorial assistance in preparing this book. As well, Toula Papanicolas provided excellent administrative support in Washington...

Abbreviations and Acronyms

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pp. xii-xii

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1. Introduction

Michael McFaul, Nikolai Petrov, and Andrei Ryabov

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pp. 1-22

...controversial questions. They are difficult to answer because Russia’s political system is neither a full-blown dictatorship nor a consolidated democracy, but something in between. They are controversial because the answers have implications for both theorists...

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2. Elections

Michael McFaul and Nikolai Petrov

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pp. 23-55

...democratic process. In seeking to describe regime types, analysts have invented many adjectives to qualify the word democracy, but all descriptions on the democratic side of the ledger, including electoral democracies and illiberal democracies, still recognize competitive elections as the critical variable that distinguishes autocracies from democracies...

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3. The Constitution

Viktor Sheinis

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pp. 56-82

...political forces and brought to an end a period of violent conflict between the president and the parliament. Unlike many states in transition, Russia was given a constitution written by the winners of the October 1993 showdown instead of a document approved through consensus. Therefore...

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4. Legislative-Executive Relations

Andrei Ryabov

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pp. 83-104

...Soviet Union to a new political system based on interaction between legislative and executive institutions was a tortuous process punctuated by a number of conflicts, including an armed conflict between the president and...

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5. Political Parties

Michael McFaul

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pp. 105-134

...democracies and the difficulties of establishing parties from scratch in new democracies, theorists still agree that parties and a party system are necessary evils for the functioning of representative government...

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6. Civil Society

Michael McFaul and Elina Treyger

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pp. 135-173

...attempted coup in August 1991. An open, democratic opposition materialized where dissidence had been sparse and scattered; and a heretofore passive, deferential citizenry formed political organizations unassociated with the Soviet party-state. The proliferation of non-party...

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7. The Mass Media

Andrei Ryabov

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pp. 174-194

...democratization. Russia has been no exception. The development of independent mass media, even if a sporadic and unfinished process, played a key role in Russia’s postcommunist political transition and democratization. Thus the history of their development...

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8. The Rule of Law

Mikhail Krasnov

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pp. 195-212

...Marxism-Leninism sees the value of law only insofar as it serves the interests of those in power. Such a view clearly directly contradicts the meaning of a law-governed state, and its legacy complicates Russia’s ability...

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9. Federalism

Nikolai Petrov

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pp. 213-238

...democratic, semi-authoritarian, regional elites. Like Russian democracy, Russian federalism has many elements that are decorative rather than substantive and that appear similar to their Western analogues but have a different essence. Russian federalism serves as...

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10. Regional Models of Democratic Development

Nikolai Petrov

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pp. 239-267

...and the activity of nongovernmental organizations. Yet observers often erroneously deduce trends from developments solely at the federal level of government. The reality is that the situation in Moscow and its adjacent regions (Moskovskaya Oblast), diverges fundamentally...

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11. Public Attitudes About Democracy

Vladimir Petukhov and Andrei Ryabov

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pp. 268-291

...totalitarian political regime to a more open and pluralistic system. By the mid-1990s, after years of formal government control, parts of the mass media became independent and began to play an important role in shaping public opinion. The fundamental principles of the former political system were revamped to promote the development of new...

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12. Postscript: The 2003 Parliamentary Elections and the Future of Russian Democracy

Michael McFaul, Nikolai Petrov, and Andrei Ryabov

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pp. 292-298

...destruction than construction. The first Russian president helped to guide the Soviet empire to a relatively peaceful collapse, dismantled the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and destroyed the Soviet command economy. In the wake of this regime destruction...

Notes

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pp. 299-342

Index

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pp. 343-361

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About the Author

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pp. 362-363

...Institution. He is also an Associate Professor of Political Science at Stanford University and a nonresident Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Before joining the Stanford faculty in 1995, he worked for two years...

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The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

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pp. 364-364

...approaches. Their interests span geographic regions and the relations between governments, business, international organizations, and civil society, focusing on the economic, political, and technological forces driving global change. Through its Carnegie Moscow Center...