Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-1

Title Page, Series Page, Copyright Page, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 2-7

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 8-9

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 10-37

...act drama that lasted a century, with a changing cast of players reenacting the same scenes over and over. As the great empire crumbled, a succession of ethnic and religious groups played out their struggles for independence on its shrinking stage against a backdrop of forced population exchanges, As the last of the great early modern empires, the Ott oman state en-...

read more

Guide to Ottoman Turkish Words and Names

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 38-39

...oe, as in Goethe, or i, as in girl; in French it corresponds to eu, as in seul, or in ? high u, as in fortune, or du in French, or ? in German, as in L?geTh e ranks in hierarchial order Th e corresponding military units...

Abbreviations

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 40-45

read more

ONE: Ottoman Sources and the Question of Their Being Purged

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 46-73

...about 1915 concerns which documents are available and to what degree they can be trusted. Among these sources, the offi cial papers belonging to the Ott oman government of that time, which are found in the Ott o-man Archive of the General Directorate of the Prime Ministerial State Archive of the Turkish Republic (T.C. Ba?bakanl?k Devlet Ar?ivleri ...

read more

TWO: The Plan for the Homogenization of Anatolia

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 74-107

...lengthy history of devising and implementing population and resett le-ment policies, by the second half of the nineteenth century it was forced to contend with a totally new problem.1 Large numbers of Muslimsu2014.dmi-grants from recently lost Ott oman territories as well as expellees from other countriesu2014.dbegan to fl ood into the shrinking Ott oman state, many ...

read more

THREE: The Aftermath of the Balkan Wars and the “Emptying” of Eastern Thrace and the Aegean Littoral in 1913–14

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 108-141

...its entry into the war, the Ott oman government carried out a basic eth-nic-cleansing operation, particularly against the Greeks in Th race and the Aegean litt oral. Th ey used a dual-track mechanism extensively. On one hand, they signed separate ?population exchange? agreements with the governments of the Balkan states; on the other hand, they terrorized Ot-...

read more

FOUR: The Transformation of Ottoman Policies toward the Ottoman Greeks during the First World War

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 142-169

Interior Ministry?s Cipher Offi ce, one can observe that the policy fol-lowed against the Ott oman Greeks underwent an important change in November 1914, when the use of widespread violence against the Greeks and their forcible expulsion to Greece were halted. Policies concerning the Greeks during the war years were restricted henceforth to sending ...

read more

FIVE: The Initial Phase of Anti-Armenian Policy

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 170-201

Unionist government made clear distinctions in its wartime policies be-tween the Armenians and the empire?s other Christian communities. Th e Greeks, as has been seen, were deported and expelled with brutality, but the Armenians were targeted for outright annihilation. In the decision to exterminate them, the Unionists? overarching objective of homogenizing ...

read more

SIX: Final Steps in the Decision-Making Process

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 202-247

...complete disaster for the Ott oman Army, which lost, by its own count, more than sixty thousand soldiers, most of whom froze to death in the snows of the Caucasus Mountains. Along with this great loss, many sol-diers deserted from the army and, in order to survive, turned to brigand-age.1 Another setback, though perhaps not of the same magnitude, was ...

read more

SEVEN: Interior Ministry Documents and the Intent to Annihilate

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 248-271

...cord, as discussed at the beginning of this study, the surviving documents in the Interior Ministry section of the Prime Ministerial Ott oman Archive are suffi cient to show the distinctive character of Ott oman wartime mea-sures against the Armenians: having been uprooted and deported from Anatolia, they were to be denied even rudimentary living conditions. As ...

read more

EIGHT: Demographic Policy and the Annihilation of the Armenians

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 272-331

...outcome of a sequence of decisions, each one triggering the next, ques-tions arise as to the possible relationship between demographic policy and genocidal practice. Were they distinct responses to diff erent needs? Or was genocide the ultimate fulfi llment of a demographic vision? I will argue that there was such a causal relationship. Demographic anxieties ...

read more

NINE: Assimilation: The Conversion and Forced Marriage of Christian Children

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 332-385

Raphael Lemkin, who coined the term ?genocide,? recalled his struggle to persuade the United Nations to recognize ?cultural genocide.? Th is con-cept, wrote Lemkin, ?meant the destruction of the cultural patt ern of a group, such as the language, the traditions, the monuments, archives, li-braries, churches. In brief: the shrines of the soul of a nation.?1...

read more

TEN: The Question of Confiscated Armenian Property

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 386-417

...abandoned Armenian property and possessions in their wake. Th is posed the question of what policy the government and local offi cials should take in regard to its preservation or liquidation. Th e ultimate answer of the Unionist government is highly instructive regarding the ultimate aims of their Armenian policy. On the basis of existing Interior Ministry Papers ...

read more

ELEVEN: Some Official Denialist Arguments of the Turkish State and Documents from the Ottoman Interior Ministry

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 418-493

...about the Armenian Genocide that people have not gott en sick of repeat-ing to such a degree that they practically become memorized. Th ese in-clude the now-classic arguments that Armenian Catholics and Protestants, and the Armenians of Istanbul and ?zmir, were not deported. Families of soldiers were not touched, and despite it being wartime, the government ...

read more

TWELVE: Toward a Conclusion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 494-497

...mass murder of the twentieth centuryu2014.dmust be placed in a new context and understood within that context: the commencement of the parti-tioning of the Ott oman Empire into nation-states. Far from an isolated campaign against a single ethnoreligious group, the annihilation of the Armenians was part of an extremely comprehensive operation that was ac-...

Selected Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 498-515

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 516-528