Cover

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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright Page, Dedication

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Contents

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p. vii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

This was the deduction of the “person of learning and piety” who published a treatise in 1703 on the probable solution of this question: whence come the stork and the turtle, and the crane and the swallow, when they know and observe the appointed time of their coming— or where those...

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Acknowledgments

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p. xiii

It is our great pleasure to thank the several people who have helped us in our efforts. For general inspiration we can single out Ken Able, Don Griffin, Bill Keeton, Joe Kirschvink, Charlie Walcott, David Wilcove, and John Bonner. For repeated encouragement to synthesize the literature in the field, we thank Geoffrey North of Current Biology. We particularly...

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1 Navigating—Problems and Strategies

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pp. 1-18

It is our great pleasure to thank the several people who have helped us in our efforts. For general inspiration we can single out Ken Able, Don Griffin, Bill Keeton, Joe Kirschvink, Charlie Walcott, David Wilcove, and John Bonner. For repeated encouragement to synthesize the literature in the field, we thank Geoffrey North of Current Biology. We particularly...

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2 When and Where

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pp. 19-34

Taxes are powerful forces that drive much of behavior, particularly of microorganisms. But a monarch butterfly heading south toward an isolated mountain peak in Mexico a thousand miles away can do much more. It will steer to the right of the sun at 9 a.m., toward the sun at noon, well to the left of the sun at 3 p.m., and so on, always heading due south...

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3 A Matter of Time

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pp. 35-68

Honey bees evolved in the tropics and spread throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe; Columbus brought the first honey bees to the Americas. Honey was for millennia the only sweetener that could be kept immune from spoilage, so it is no surprise that colonies of people brought colonies of bees to their new homes. Their wax provided candles, and their...

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4 Insect Compasses

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pp. 69-116

Anyone who has dug in the wet sand near the tide line will have encountered sandhoppers, tiny crustaceans that hop wildly when threatened. Sandhoppers are usually out foraging only at night, feeding on detritus the waves have left behind, having anticipated both dusk and the ebbing tide. In preparation for an incoming tide or dawn they burrow back...

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5 Vertebrate Compasses

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pp. 117-154

Though the small, orange-breasted European robin is a popular symbol of Christmas, many populations actually overwinter not in Europe, but in northern Africa. Robins are famous for their friendliness toward humans, but also for the males’ readiness to fight other males—or anything else orange—in the spring. The robin is a classic instance of how...

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6 Piloting and Inertial Navigation

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pp. 155-184

Wolfgang Köhler, a founder of the school of Gestalt psychology, is honored by animal behaviorists for his work on the mentality of apes. Given novel problems (a banana hung out of reach overhead, for instance), some of his chimpanzees could use tools such as sticks, boxes, poles, and the like to reach the food. Tellingly, they had to have played with...

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7 The Map Sense

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pp. 185-226

The Arctic hosts immense populations of breeding birds exploiting the long days and the brief but astonishing productivity that the extended sunlight of summer makes possible. Two species of large shorebirds illustrate some of the extremes in bird migration. With wingspans of about 2.5 feet, these birds are large enough to carry transmitters, so...

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8 Migration and the Future: Conservation and Extinction

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pp. 227-244

Why do animals migrate? For the southern right whales we studied as graduate students, the answer is clear; during the winter the Antarctic ice sheet expands, covering the summer feeding grounds. Though the rich concentration of krill is still there, air-breathing mammals can no longer safely feed. And because whales are warm blooded, lingering in...

Bibliography

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pp. 245-280

Illustration Credits

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pp. 281-288

Index

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pp. 289-294