Cover

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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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p. v

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

This book was conceived at the London School of Economics and in Oxford and, after research in Bilbao and Madrid, reluctantly brought to this world in Chicago, Princeton, and Buenos Aires. I wish to extend my warmest thanks to the staff at the Archivo Histórico Nacional and the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid, as well as at the Archivo Foral de Bizkaia and the Archivo Provincial de Vizcaya in Bilbao. Librarians at the Institute for Advanced...

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Preface

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pp. ix-xvii

“Spain is different.”Many Spaniards and quite a few non-Spaniards over the age of forty remember this slogan. It appeared on brochures and posters distributed by the Franco regime to entice tourists to spend their valuable hard currency on Spain’s beautiful beaches. They came in the millions. The advertising campaign was so successful because it basically affirmed what in the 1960s Spaniards and non-S paniards alike thought of as an obvious truth: Spain was not really a...

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Chapter 1. Markets and States

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pp. 1-37

Historians of early modern Europe have to explain at least two exceedingly far-reaching phenomena. The first one turned people who had thought about themselves as the citizens of a town or the subjects of an estate or village—be it seigneurial or royal—slowly but surely into subjects and eventually citizens of a nation-state. The second one, less often appreciated but equally important, was that Europeans’ livelihoods became subject to changes in markets that were a...

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Chapter 2. Tracing the Market: The Empirical Challenge

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pp. 38-51

Historians and economists have quite distinct working definitions of market integration. On the one hand, historians of the early modern period tend to think about market integration as a process in which agriculture and manufacturing directed largely at guaranteeing subsistence were increasingly replaced by specialized production that had to be sold on the market in return for other goods. This was accompanied by a similar increase in labor allocation that was fully monetized..

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Chapter 3. Bacalao: A New Consumer Good Takes on the Peninsula

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pp. 52-79

This is how the great Spanish encyclopedia of Esteban de Terreros y Pando defined dried, salted codfish in the 1780s.1 Quite a lot has been written about the rise of the cod trade as one of the first transatlantic commodities; indeed, cod might be the only fish that has had its (collective?) biography written.2 Yet less is known about its introduction into southern European markets and next to nothing about how the transatlantic end of the trade interacted with markets within southern......

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Chapter 4. The Tyranny of Distance: Transport and Markets in Spain

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pp. 80-115

Spain suffers from a particularly unforgiving geography by European standards. Within its present borders the average altitude above sea level is about 660 meters, which also happens to be the altitude of Madrid. That makes Spain the country with the second-highest average elevation in Europe after Switzerland.1 In terms of landmass it is just smaller than France, but it has only two navigable rivers, the Ebro and the Guadalquivir, and even these become unnavigable barely 100 kilometers from the sea. Fast currents and abrupt changes in...

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Chapter 5. Distant Tyranny: The Historic Territories

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pp. 116-164

Domestic market integration in Spain was indeed slow; more specifically, it was much slower than Spain’s integration with the international economy over the long run, and its progress was regionally extremely diverse. That much should be clear from the results of chapter 4. Poor transport technology and bad roads did not help matters and provide some of the background for understanding..

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Chapter 6. Distant Tyranny: The Power of Urban Republics

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pp. 165-189

Writing about widespread riots in Spain in the autumn of 1854, a German journalist and incisive commentator on European affairs tried to trace the deep historical roots of the “revolutions” Spain had experienced since the turn of the century. In a series of articles for the New York Daily Tribune he quipped, “Spain has never adopted the modern French fashion . . . of beginning and accomplishing...

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Chapter 7. Market Growth and Governance in Early Modern Spain

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pp. 190-212

Caught between anxieties about Anglo-Spanish imperial rivalry and their own hubris, English travel writers of the eighteenth century had few charitable things to say about their Iberian competitor. Spaniards were “lazy, improvident people,” taunted one observer. Another thought that “the listless indolence equally dear to the uncivilized savage, and to the degenerate slave of despotism, is no where more indulged than in Spain; thousands of men in all parts of the realm...

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Chapter 8. Center and Peripheries=

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pp. 213-240

The magic of the market, dependent as it is on price signals, worked poorly where a multitude of local trade and consumption taxes affected relative prices in unpredictable ways. The persistence of fragmented fiscal systems and economic and political institutions further limited market integration in an economy that was already saddled with relatively high transport costs. Allocative inefficiencies were the consequence. Interregional integration was slowed down and sometimes even reversed, and local markets remained at the mercy of the...

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Conclusion

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pp. 241-246

In his magnificent account, Boundaries: The Making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees, Sahlins demonstrates how European nation-states were constructed at least as much from the periphery to the center as from the center to the periphery. On the boundaries, allegiances and identities were built in contrast to those on the other side, as well as out of commonality with those on one’s own side. The peoples of the peripheries were not the unconscious objects of a process of...

A Note on the Sources

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pp. 247-250

Bibliography

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pp. 251-280

Index

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pp. 281-292

Series Page

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pp. 293-294