Cover

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Series Info, Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Illustrations

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pp. vii-viii

List of Tables

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pp. ix-x

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiv

Though penned over a century-and-a-half ago, Tocqueville’s book presents an enduring puzzle for the nature of entrepreneurial activity in the United States. On the one hand, American society is often characterized as a prototypical case of an individualistic culture. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xviii

I experienced my first contact with entrepreneurial groups over twenty years ago. During the late 1980s, my father left his job as the vice president of the American division of a German textile machinery company in order to embark on an entrepreneurial career. ...

Part One: Concepts, Theories, and Puzzles

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Chapter One: Who Is an Entrepreneur?

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pp. 3-16

It was the fall of 1998 and Bob Moog was eager to jump on the Internet bandwagon. As the founder and president of University Games, Moog had been in the game business for well over a decade, producing mystery, trivia, and educational games for adults and children. ...

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Chapter Two: Images of Entrepreneurial Groups

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pp. 17-37

Comparing the entrepreneurial efforts of Bob Moog with those of John and Emily Koslowski in the previous chapter, I suggested how their activities highlight very different definitions of entrepreneurship. Some of these definitions focus on innovation or the establishment of a viable organization; ...

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Chapter Three: Empirical Puzzles

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pp. 38-54

The entrepreneurial group is a relatively novel unit of analysis. Studies of emergent organizations have traditionally relied either on samples of individuals who are trying to start new organizations or samples of startup ventures themselves.1 ...

Part Two: Creating the Entrepreneurial Group

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Chapter Four: Group Formation

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pp. 57-84

When Luis began considering a wholesale business for women’s and children’s clothing in Los Angeles, he wondered whether Diego and Bill would join him as partners in the venture. All three had been friends for over a decade and, while they had never worked together, each had a few years of experience in the clothing industry. ...

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Chapter Five: Boundaries of the Startup Firm

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pp. 85-110

Boundaries are an essential element of most definitions of organizations (Thompson 1967; Williamson 1975; Aldrich and Ruef 2006). As a condition of their existence, organizations maintain boundaries that distinguish them from their environments, though these boundaries may be incomplete and permeable (Meyer and Lu 2005; Scott and Davis 2006). ...

Part Three: Collective Action within the Group

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Chapter Six: Allocation of Rewards and Control

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pp. 113-137

During his dozen years as a custodian and building maintenance worker in Aurora, Illinois, Carl Whitaker noticed that many employees in small businesses and nonprofits went to great lengths to organize corporate social functions, taking on food preparation and planning activities that fell outside their area of expertise. ...

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Chapter Seven: Effort and Opportunism

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pp. 138-160

At first glance, entrepreneurs may seem to be highly motivated workers, especially when compared with their salaried counterparts. The owners of startup businesses share directly in profits and often have the ability to exercise day-to-day control in the management of these ventures. ...

Part Four: Performance of the Group

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Chapter Eight: Innovation

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pp. 163-184

When Wendy Finch was starting a business with her daughter and two friends in Houston, Texas, making money was not at the top of her list of priorities. Having spent seventeen years as a teacher in the Houston school system, Wendy was dismayed by the number of students she knew who were homeless. ...

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Chapter Nine: Goals and Group Dynamics

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pp. 185-205

Studies of group processes have long been bifurcated into those that emphasize the goals and interests that contribute to group formation versus those that emphasize the social interactions that produce groups apart from individual interests. ...

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Chapter Ten: Implications and Extensions

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pp. 206-226

An era of entrepreneurship ended in the fall of 2008, at least as perceived by the American popular press. The previous decade had witnessed a tremendous amount of rhetoric around the ideas of an “ownership society,” a “new economy,” the “dot-com” era, and, more generally, a culture of entrepreneurial capitalism.1 ...

Appendix A. Data Sources

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pp. 227-232

Appendix B. Sampling of Groups

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pp. 233-235

Appendix C. Analysis of Groups

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pp. 236-238

Notes

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pp. 239-258

References

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pp. 259-280

Index

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pp. 281-288