Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-viii

One can argue about when ecology was born as a science, although surely the writings of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace created the essential context for the emergence of a new study of the interrelationships of species with each other and with their environments. ...

Contributors

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pp. ix-xiv

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Part I Autecology

Autecology refers to how a single species interacts with the environment; its counterpart is synecology, which refers to how multiple species interact with each other. This latter term is mostly congruent with the field of community ecology, the subject of part III of this volume. ...

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I.1 Ecological Niche

Thomas W. Schoener

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pp. 3-13

It may come as something of a surprise that ecological niche, a term so common in the popular media, has three distinct meanings among scientists, each with an associated conceptual basis: these are the recess/role niche, the population-persistence niche, and the resource-utilization niche. ...

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I.2 Physiological Ecology: Animals

Martin Wikelski

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pp. 14-19

Physiological ecologists study how animals live and function within environments that are constantly changing. Key guiding concepts in physiological ecology are that (1) individual animals are subject to trade-offs such that all (physiological) actions cannot be performed maximally at the same time. ...

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I.3 Physiological Ecology: Plants

David D. Ackerly, Stephanie A. Stuart

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pp. 20-26

Plant physiological ecology addresses the physiological interactions of plants with the abiotic and biotic environment and the consequences for plant growth, distributions, and responses to changing conditions. Plants have three unique features that influence their physiological ecology: they are autotrophs (obtaining energy from the sun), they are sessile and unable to move, ...

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I.4 Functional Morphology: Muscles, Elastic Mechanisms, and Animal Performance

Duncan J. Irschick, Justin P. Henningsen

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pp. 27-37

Functional morphology is the study of relationships between morphology and organismal function. A simple inspection of animal diversity reveals a remarkable array of phenotypes and concomitant functions. For example, even within a single mammalian group (bats), one observes organisms consuming food of all types, such as blood, fruit, leaves, nectar, insects, and other animals. ...

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I.5 Habitat Selection

Judy Stamps

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pp. 38-44

Separately and in combination, the terms habitat and selection mean different things to different audiences. This chapter focuses on habitat selection behavior at the level of individuals and considers how the processes that affect the choices made by organisms at different spatial scales affect the distributions at the population level. ...

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I.6 Dispersal

Nicolas Perrin

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pp. 45-50

After a brief overview of the general patterns and the variety of mechanisms used for dispersal, this chapter delineates its evolutionary causes. Besides the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of limiting resources, genetic structures resulting from mating or social systems play a role by affecting the potential for inbreeding and kin competition. ...

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I.7 Foraging Behavior

Joel S. Brown

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pp. 51-58

A need for energy and resources for survival, growth, and reproduction is a universal property of life. Hence, all organisms must forage. Even plants have noncognitive foraging behaviors. Life exhibits a wonderful diversity of feeding behaviors and associated morphological and physiological adaptations. Food must be found and handled. ...

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I.8 Social Behavior

Eldridge S. Adams

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pp. 59-64

Social life is a mix of cooperation, altruism, and selfishness. In species as diverse as slime molds, army ants, and great apes, individuals coordinate actions to achieve common goals. Yet competition and conflict are common within social groups and may lead to lethal altercations. ...

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I.9 Phenotypic Plasticity

Joseph Travis

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pp. 65-71

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an individual to express different features under different environmental conditions. Examples of plasticity surround us: plants have broader leaves when grown in shady conditions, and animals are smaller when they develop in crowded conditions. ...

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I.10 Life History

William F. Morris

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pp. 72-78

The term life history summarizes the timing and magnitude of growth, reproduction, and mortality over the lifetime of an individual organism. Important features of an individual’s life history include the age or size at which reproduction begins, the relationship between size and age, ...

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I.11 Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

Catherine H. Graham, Scott J. Goetz

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pp. 79-86

Remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) provide data and tools that are used extensively across ecology, evolution, biogeography, and conservation biology. Some fields in particular, such as landscape ecology and biogeography, have relied heavily and increasingly on sophisticated analyses afforded by these data and tools. ...

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I.12 Geographic Range

Kevin J. Gaston

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pp. 87-92

No species occurs everywhere. Indeed, most are absent from the vast majority of sites across the globe. Those areas in which a species does occur constitute its geographic range. As such, the geographic range is one of the fundamental units in ecology. ...

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I.13 Adaptation

Allan Larson

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pp. 93-100

Darwin’s theory of natural selection explains how genetically variable populations gradually accumulate traits that enhance an organism’s ability to survive and to reproduce. Calling a particular character an adaptation denotes the hypothesis that the character arose gradually by natural selection for a particular biological role, which is called the character’s function. ...

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I.14 Phenotypic Selection

David W. Pfennig, Joel G. Kingsolver

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pp. 101-108

In this chapter, we describe the strength and patterns of natural selection in the wild. We focus on phenotypic selection because natural selection acts on the phenotypes of individual organisms. We begin by explaining what phenotypic selection is and how it works. ...

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I.15 Population Genetics and Ecology

Philip Hedrick

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pp. 109-116

About 40 years ago, scientists first strongly advocated the integration of population ecology and population genetics into population biology (Singh and Uyenoyama, 2004). Even today these two disciplines are not really integrated, but there is a general appreciation of population genetic concepts in population ecology and vice versa. ...

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I.16 Phylogenetics and Comparative Methods

David D. Ackerly

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pp. 117-125

The study of ecology frequently draws on comparative observations and experiments that rely on the similarities and differences among species and the correlations among species traits and the environment. In such studies, consideration of the phylogenetic relationships among species provides valuable information for statistical inference ...

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I.17 Microevolution

Michael A. Bell

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pp. 126-133

Microevolution occurs within and among populations of a species and usually involves changes in the mean value or relative frequencies of alleles and phenotypes that are shared by most populations of the species. Divergence among populations of a species (i.e., conspecific populations) is often associated with habitat differences, ...

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I.18 Ecological Speciation: Natural Selection and the Formation of New Species

Patrik Nosil, Howard Rundle

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pp. 134-142

Understanding how new species arise is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Recent years have seen renewed interest in the classic idea that adaptive evolution within species and the origin of new species are intimately linked. ...

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I.19 Adaptive Radiation

Rosemary Gillespie

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pp. 143-152

Adaptive radiation is generally triggered by the appearance of available niche space, which could result from (1) intrinsic factors or key innovations that allow an organism to exploit a novel resource, and/or (2) extrinsic factors, in which physical ecological space is created as a result of climatic changes or the appearance de novo of islands. ...

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Part II Population Ecology

Understanding what determines the average abundance of species, why their numbers fluctuate, and how they interact with each other is a major part of modern ecology often united under the term population ecology. Of course, the boundaries of population ecology are ill-defined and porous: on the one hand the field grades into physiological ecology— ...

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II.1 Age-Structured and Stage-Structured Population Dynamics

Mark Rees, Stephen P. Ellner

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pp. 155-165

When all individuals in a population are identical, we can characterize the population just by counting the number of individuals. However, the individuals within many animal and plant populations differ in important ways that influence their current and future prospects of survival and reproduction. ...

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II.2 Density Dependence and Single-Species Population Dynamics

Anthony R. Ives

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pp. 166-171

In ecology, population dynamics refers to how populations of a species change through time. The study of single-species population dynamics encompasses three general questions: (1) What explains the average abundance of a population? (2) What explains the fluctuations in abundance of a population through time? ...

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II.3 Biological Chaos and Complex Dynamics

Alan Hastings

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pp. 172-176

The cause of fluctuations in ecological populations has long been the subject of study, with the goal of understanding the relative importance of exogenous versus endogenous forces in explaining observed dynamics. ...

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II.4 Metapopulations and Spatial Population Processes

Ilkka Hanski

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pp. 177-185

Most landscapes are complex mosaics of many kinds of habitat. From the viewpoint of a particular species, only some habitat types, often called ‘‘suitable habitat,’’ provide the necessary resources for population growth. The remaining landscape, often called the (landscape) matrix, can only be traversed by dispersing individuals. ...

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II.5 Competition and Coexistence in Plant Communities

Ray Dybzinski, David Tilman

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pp. 186-195

Numerous species commonly compose natural plant assemblages from the poles to the equator, and a wealth of classic ecological experiments have demonstrated that these often compete strongly with one another for resources such as nutrients or light. Theoretical ecologists have demonstrated that competing species are only expected to stably coexist ...

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II.6 Competition and Coexistence in Animal Communities

Priyanga Amarasekare

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pp. 196-201

Competition is the most ubiquitous of species interactions. It occurs any time a resource that is essential to growth and reproduction (e.g., food, shelter, nesting sites) occurs in short supply. The acquisition of the resource by one individual simultaneously deprives others of access to it, and this deprivation has a negative effect on both the fitness of individuals and the per capita growth rates of populations. ...

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II.7 Predator–Prey Interactions

Robert F. Denno, Danny Lewis

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pp. 202-212

In natural food webs, consumers fall victim to other consumers such as predators, parasitoids, parasites, or pathogens. Predators kill and consume all or parts of their prey and do so either before or after their catch has reproduced. A lynx stalking, attacking, and consuming a snowshoe hare is an example from the vertebrate world. ...

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II.8 Host–Parasitoid Interactions

Cheryl J. Briggs

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pp. 213-219

Parasitoid–host interactions have been popular topics of study in the areas of population biology and behavioral ecology because they represent potentially simple, tightly coupled interactions in which the oviposition behavior of the adult female parasitoid searching for hosts translates directly into fecundity and therefore fitness. ...

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II.9 Ecological Epidemiology

Michael Begon

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pp. 220-226

Strictly speaking, epidemiology is the study of the dynamics of disease in a population of humans. In ecology, however, the term takes on a slightly different meaning. Ecologists tend to expand the usage to cover populations of any species, animal or plant, but they then restrict it to infectious diseases (as opposed to, say, cancers or heart disease). ...

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II.10 Interactions between Plants and Herbivores

Rebecca J. Morris

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pp. 227-232

Herbivores are animals that feed on living plants. Herbivory is one of most common ecological interactions and is exhibited by species ranging from microscopic mites to giant pandas. Herbivore–plant interactions have features in common with all other consumer–resource interactions, although there are significant differences. ...

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II.11 Mutualism and Symbiosis

Judith L. Bronstein

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pp. 233-238

Mutualisms are interactions between two species that benefit both of them. Individuals that interact successfully with a mutualist experience greater success than those that do not. Behaving mutualistically is therefore of direct benefit to the individual itself. ...

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II.12 Ecology of Microbial Populations

Thomas Bell

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pp. 239-246

Laboratory studies of microbial populations have informed many early population models, and there is now an enormous literature describing the dynamics of microbial populations under controlled conditions. This chapter outlines the major developments in the study of microbial populations, ...

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II.13 Coevolution

John N. Thompson

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pp. 247-252

Coevolution is reciprocal evolutionary change among interacting species driven by natural selection. It is the evolutionary process by which many predators and prey, parasites and hosts, competitors, and mutualists adapt to each other in the constant struggle for life. ...

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Part III Communities and Ecosystems

Michel Loreau

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pp. 253-256

Ecology is the science of the interactions between living organisms and their environment. What makes ecology so fascinating, and at the same time so disturbing for the layperson, is the extraordinary diversity and complexity of these interactions, which create a wide range of nested complex systems from the scale of a droplet of water to that of the entire planet. ...

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III.1 Biodiversity: Concepts, Patterns, and Measurement

Robert K. Colwell

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pp. 257-263

Life on Earth is diverse at many levels, beginning with genes and extending to the wealth and complexity of species, life forms, and functional roles, organized in spatial patterns from biological communities to ecosystems, regions, and beyond. The study of biodiversity encompasses the discovery, description, and analysis of the elements that underlie these patterns as well as the patterns themselves. ...

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III.2 Competition, Neutrality, and Community Organization

Jérôme Chave

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pp. 264-273

Competition has long been thought to play a foremost role in the organization of ecological communities, and this has been a core concept in the building of niche theory. However, many observed patterns in nature are difficult to reconcile with the predictions of niche theory, and they reflect the historical nature of community assembly. ...

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III.3 Predation and Community Organization

Robert D. Holt

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pp. 274-281

Acts of predation are among the most dramatic events one can see in nature, but the impact of predation on ecological communities goes well beyond the effect of direct mortality on the prey species itself. Because species are embedded in complex food webs, predation on one species can lead to chains of indirect interactions affecting many other species. ...

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III.4 Facilitation and the Organization of Plant Communities

Ragan M. Callaway

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pp. 282-288

Current plant community ecology, as presented in most textbooks, often promotes the perspective that communities are produced only by the traits of populations and that assemblages of different plant species exist primarily because each shares adaptations to particular abiotic conditions. ...

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III.5 Indirect Effects in Communities and Ecosystems: The Role of Trophic and Nontrophic Interactions

Oswald J. Schmitz

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pp. 289-295

Species in ecological communities interact directly with another species through consumer–resource, competitive, or mutualistic interactions. Whenever three or more species are engaged in such interactions, we see the emergence of indirect effects in which one species affects another through a shared, intermediary species. ...

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III.6 Top-Down and Bottom-Up Regulation of Communities

E. T. Borer, D. S. Gruner

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pp. 296-304

In this chapter we briefly trace the historical debate and outline the theoretical and empirical evidence for factors controlling the biomass of predators, herbivores, and plants within and among ecosystems. ...

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III.7 The Structure and Stability of Food Webs

Kevin McCann

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pp. 305-311

The role of diversity and structural complexity in the dynamics and stability of ecosystems is a longstanding and unresolved issue in ecology. Here, I review the history of this major ecological problem and highlight three relatively distinct historical periods in thought. The first period was one of mostly intuitive belief that suggests nature’s diversity gives rise to stability. ...

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III.8 Spatial and Metacommunity Dynamics in Biodiversity

M. A. Leibold

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pp. 312-319

Spatial dynamics presents some of the biggest challenges in modern ecology. These occur when the movement of organisms in space affects their populations and consequently affects how they interact with other species. It has long been known that spatial dynamics can be very important in regulating species interactions. ...

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III.9 Ecosystem Productivity and Carbon Flows: Patterns across Ecosystems

Julien Lartigue, Just Cebrian

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pp. 320-329

The characterization and understanding of carbon flows in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are topics of paramount importance for several disciplines, such as ecology, biogeochemistry, oceanography, and climatology. Scientists have been studying such flows in many diverse ecosystems for decades, ...

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III.10 Nutrient Cycling and Biogeochemistry

Peter M. Vitousek, Pamela A. Matson

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pp. 330-339

Studies of nutrient cycles involve integrating information from very fine spatial and temporal scales (the dynamics of enzymes in the neighborhood of microbes) to very coarse scales (the global biogeochemical cycles); they involve integrating the dynamics of organisms with those of the environment that they inhabit and help to shape. ...

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III.11 Terrestrial Carbon and Biogeochemical Cycles

R. A. Houghton

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pp. 340-346

Two modes of explanation account for the accumulation of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems: metabolism and demography. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (as well as temperature and moisture) affect the metabolic processes that control the rate at which ecosystems fix and accumulate carbon in organic matter. ...

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III.12 Freshwater Carbon and Biogeochemical Cycles

Darren Bade

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pp. 347-357

Freshwater lakes provide an ideal example for considering the carbon cycle and other biogeochemical cycles. A range of redox conditions exists in lakes that allows observation of numerous chemical and biochemical processes. The processes are not limited to freshwater lakes, and similar examples can be found in marine and terrestrial systems. ...

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III.13 The Marine Carbon Cycle

Paul Falkowski

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pp. 358-366

Approximately 50% of all the primary production on Earth occurs in the oceans, virtually all by microscopic, single-celled organisms that drift with the currents, the phytoplankton. On ecological time scales of days to years, the vast majority of the organic matter produced by phytoplankton is consumed by grazers ...

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III.14 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning

Andrew Hector, Andy Wilby

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pp. 367-375

Forecasts of ongoing biodiversity loss prompted ecologists in the early 1990s to question whether this loss of species could have a negative impact on the functioning of ecosystems. Ecosystem functioning is an umbrella term for the processes operating in an ecosystem, that is, the biogeochemical flows of energy and matter within and between ecosystems (e.g., primary production and nutrient cycling). ...

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III.15 Ecological Stoichiometry

R. W. Sterner, J. J. Elser

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pp. 376-385

Ecological stoichiometry examines how the nutrient content of organisms shapes their ecology. Although the chemistry of living things is constrained by their need to have a certain representation of major biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids, etc., there is enough flexibility in these allocations that different species have nonidentical chemical contents. ...

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III.16 Macroecological Perspectives on Communities and Ecosystems

Pablo A. Marquet

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pp. 386-394

Macroecology is an emergent research program in ecology that examines patterns and processes in ecological systems at large spatial and temporal scales. It acknowledges the complexity of ecological systems and the limitation of reductionistic approaches, emphasizing a statistical description of patterns in ensembles of multiple species. ...

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III.17 Alternative Stable States and Regime Shifts in Ecosystems

Marten Scheffer

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pp. 395-406

Complex systems ranging from cells to ecosystems and the climate can have tipping points, where the slightest disturbance can cause the system to enter a phase of self-propagating change until it comes to rest in a contrasting alternative stable state. The theory explaining such catastrophic change at critical thresholds is well established. ...

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III.18 Responses of Communities and Ecosystems to Global Changes

Erika Zavaleta, Nicole Heller

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pp. 407-413

Increases in the scale and extent of human activity in the last two centuries have brought about environmental changes that affect most of the globe. These global changes include directional shifts in climate, greenhouse gas concentrations, nitrogen fixation, and stratospheric ozone depletion. ...

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III.19 Evolution of Communities and Ecosystems

Nicolas Loeuille

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pp. 414-422

Although much of evolutionary biology focuses on explaining phenotypic trait variation and on understanding the genetic basis for this variation, evolution can also affect the structure and functioning of communities and ecosystems. Evolution by natural selection discriminates among individuals based on their relative fitness such that the process of evolution is linked to demographic parameters. ...

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Part IV Landscapes and the Biosphere

The aim of this section of the Princeton Guide to Ecology is to provide an understanding of ecology at the scale of landscapes. Viewed in this way, terrestrial landscapes can be thought of as self-organizing systems of topographically determined physical/chemical factors interacting with the biological components that occupy them. ...

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IV.1 Landscape Dynamics

David J. Tongway, John A. Ludwig

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pp. 425-430

A terrestrial landscape can be viewed as a system of biological elements (organisms, populations, communities) forming a pattern across a topographic geomorphic unit. The dynamics of these landscape systems are driven by topography and climate and by interacting geochemical and biophysical processes. ...

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IV.2 Landscape Pattern and Biodiversity

Joern Fischer, David B. Lindenmayer, Richard J. Hobbs

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pp. 431-437

The amount and spatial arrangement of different types of land cover are major drivers of terrestrial biodiversity. Conceptual landscape models provide the terminology needed to analyze the effects of landscape pattern on biodiversity. Conceptual landscape models vary in their degree of complexity and realism. ...

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IV.3 Ecological Dynamics in Fragmented Landscapes

Jianguo Wu

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pp. 438-444

Landscapes will likely become increasingly fragmented for biological organisms and ecological processes as the human population and its demands for resources continue to escalate. Landscape fragmentation results in habitat loss and alterations in the composition and spatial arrangement of landscape elements, consequently affecting population and ecosystem processes. ...

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IV.4 Biodiversity Patterns in Managed and Natural Landscapes

Paul R. Moorcroft

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pp. 445-457

Human activities are profoundly altering the biodiversity of the earth. The principal drivers of change thus far have been the transformation of lands for human use, accompanying fragmentation of remaining natural habitats, hunting, and modification of native disturbance regimes. ...

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IV.5 Boundary Dynamics in Landscapes

Debra P. C. Peters, James R. Gosz, Scott L. Collins

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pp. 458-463

Landscapes consist of a mosaic of distinct vegetation types and their intervening boundaries with distinct characteristics. Boundaries can exist along abrupt environmental gradients or along gradual changes that are reinforced by feedback mechanisms between plants and soil properties. ...

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IV.6 Spatial Patterns of Species Diversity in Terrestrial Environments

Brian A. Maurer

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pp. 464-473

Spatial patterns of species diversity have intrigued ecologists since European natural historians discovered that the flora and fauna of the world varied dramatically across the face of the Earth. It is only within the last few decades that a clear understanding of the processes underlying these patterns has arisen. ...

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IV.7 Biosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in Landscapes

F. I. Woodward

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pp. 474-481

This chapter investigates some of the ways in which a vegetated landscape can influence its own climate within the planetary boundary layer. During the daytime, impacts may be exerted up to 1–2 km above the surface and are caused by changes in energy exchange, predominantly evapotranspiration, such as that resulting from deforestation or leafing out in deciduous forests. ...

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IV.8 Seascape Patterns and Dynamics of Coral Reefs

Terry P. Hughes

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pp. 482-487

Coral reef ecosystems exhibit complex dynamics driven by multiple, interacting processes that operate across a range of scales, from local to global and from days to millions of years. Many reefs have been degraded by human action in recent decades, reducing their capacity to absorb recurrent natural and unnatural disturbances. ...

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IV.9 Seascape Microbial Ecology: Habitat Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Function

David M. Karl, Ricardo M. Letelier

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pp. 488-500

Seascapes are marine analogs of landscapes in the terrestrial biosphere, namely the physical, chemical, and biological elements that collectively define a particular marine habitat. The field of seascape ecology, also referred to as ecological geography of the sea, seeks fundamental understanding of spatial and temporal variability ...

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IV.10 Spatial Dynamics of Marine Fisheries [Image Plates follow page 509]

Daniel Pauly, Reg Watson

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pp. 501-526

Key features of the evolution of marine fisheries from their near-coastal antecedents to their present existence as industrialized, high-sea ventures are recalled along with some of the elements that led, in the early 1980s, to the emergence of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and to exclusive economic zones being granted to maritime countries. ...

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Part V Conservation Biology

David S. Wilcove

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pp. 511-513

Given the rate at which humans are changing the biosphere—altering land cover and nutrient cycles, extirpating some species while spreading others around the globe, even changing the very climate of the planet—it is easy to understand why so many ecologists choose to focus their research on questions relevant to conservation. ...

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V.1 Causes and Consequences of Species Extinctions

Navjot S. Sodhi, Barry W. Brook, Corey J. A. Bradshaw

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pp. 514-520

The five largest mass die-offs in which 50–95% of species were eliminated occurred during the Ordovician [490–443 million years ago (mya)], Devonian (417–354 mya), Permian (299–250 mya), Triassic (251–200 mya), and Cretaceous (146–64 mya) periods. ...

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V.2 Population Viability Analysis

Daniel F. Doak, Myra E. Finkelstein, Victoria J. Bakker

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pp. 521-528

Population viability analysis (PVA) is the use of quantitative models to predict future population growth and extinction risks. PVA includes a variety of methods to gauge the sensitivity of population viability to natural and human-caused impacts and to estimate the efficacy of management interventions in promoting population growth and safety from extinction. ...

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V.3 Principles of Reserve Design

Nick Haddad

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pp. 529-537

Perhaps the greatest challenge to biodiversity conservation is overcoming the devastating effects of habitat loss. The single best approach to preserve biodiversity is to conserve or restore large habitat areas. ...

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V.4 Building and Implementing Systems of Conservation Areas

Will R. Turner, Robert L. Pressey

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pp. 538-547

The future of biodiversity depends critically on effective systems of conservation areas. The science underpinning the design and implementation of these systems has benefited from advances in ecology, data acquisition, and computational methods. ...

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V.5 Marine Conservation

Jeremy B. C. Jackson

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pp. 548-556

The synergistic effects of overfishing, pollution, and climate change pose a grave threat to all marine ecosystems. Complex food webs with abundant sharks, fishes, sea turtles, and whales are being replaced by greatly simplified ecosystems dominated by microbes, jellyfish, and disease. ...

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V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change

Diane M. Debinski, Molly S. Cross

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pp. 557-565

One of the most challenging issues for conservation during the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly apparent that the climate is changing because of human activities—the chemical composition of the atmosphere has been modified,record-breaking temperatures are becoming more common on an annual basis, and polar ice caps are melting. ...

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V.7 Restoration Ecology

Richard J. Hobbs

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pp. 566-572

Restoration ecology is the science underpinning the practice of repairing damaged ecosystems. Restoration ecology has developed rapidly over the latter part of the twentieth century, drawing its concepts and approaches from an array of sources, including ecology, conservation biology, and environmental engineering. ...

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Part VI Ecosystem Services

Ann P. Kinzig

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pp. 573-578

Ecosystem services are defined as ‘‘the multiple benefits provided by ecosystems to humans’’ (The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). In other words, ecosystem services are only services to the extent that they support human well-being and are thus an inherently anthropocentric construct. ...

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VI.1 Ecosystem Services: Issues of Scale and Trade-Offs

R. J. Scholes

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pp. 579-583

The quantity of each individual service that a particular ecosystem delivers varies over time and place, to some degree independently of other services. It is therefore essential to specify the period and the included area when quantifying or valuing a service. ...

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VI.2 Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Ecosystem Services

Shahid Naeem

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pp. 584-590

The biological activities of plants, animals, and microorganisms influence the chemical and physical processes of their surroundings, and if one were to modify the distribution and abundance of these organisms, ecosystem functioning, or biogeochemical activity, would change. ...

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VI.3 Beyond Biodiversity: Other Aspects of Ecological Organization

Jon Norberg

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pp. 591-596

Ecosystem services are provided by biological processes and structures as well as by the geophysical environment. Biodiversity is a measure of the variation in life forms and is the result of many biological and geological processes and constraints. ...

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VI.4 Human-Dominated Systems: Agroecosystems

Alison G. Power, Megan O’Rourke, Laurie E. Drinkwater

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pp. 597-605

Agricultural ecosystems around the globe differ radically. These systems, designed by diverse cultures under diverse socioeconomic conditions in diverse climatic regions, range from temperate zone monocultural corn production systems to species-rich tropical agroforestry systems to arid-land pastoral systems. ...

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VI.5 Forests

Luis A. Solórzano, Guayana I. Páez-Acosta

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pp. 606-613

Forest ecosystem services by definition are dependent on the use and value assigned to them by people’s needs and perceptions. Humans have historically interacted with forested biomes around the globe and changed their ecological structure as well as their flow of services; ...

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VI.6 Grasslands

Martha Downs, Osvaldo E. Sala

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pp. 614-618

This section focuses on the ecosystem services provided by natural grasslands. These regions of the world are mostly limited by water availability, and they exclude anthropogenic grasslands, which derived from forests that were logged and converted into pastures, often to support cattle grazing. ...

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VI.7 Marine Ecosystem Services

Marissa L. Baskett, Benjamin S. Halpern

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pp. 619-624

Marine ecosystems provide a variety of services: provisioning services such as fisheries, regulating services such as storm protection in coastal regions, supporting services such as primary production that can cross the land–sea boundary, and cultural services such as tourism. ...

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VI.8 Provisioning Services: A Focus on Fresh Water

Margaret A. Palmer, David C. Richardson

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pp. 625-633

Healthy freshwater ecosystems play crucial roles in the global environment by controlling fluxes of minerals, nutrients, and energy, and, by providing goods and services critical to humans including water for drinking or irrigation and fish for consumption. Freshwater ecosystems also provide regulating services such as carbon sequestration, flood control, and cultural services ...

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VI.9 Regulating Services: A Focus on Disease Regulation

Peter Daszak, A. Marm Kilpatrick

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pp. 634-641

Over the past few decades there has been an explosion of interest in the ecology of infectious diseases and their roles in ecosystem function. Many studies have focused on the dynamics of pathogens within human, other animal, and plant populations and their role in causing mass mortality events and population declines. ...

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VI.10 Support Services: A Focus on Genetic Diversity

Oliver R. W. Pergams, Peter Kareiva

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pp. 642-651

Empirically and theoretically we know that genetic diversity is essential for rapid evolution. In the face of a rapidly changing world driven by unprecedented human impacts, the ability to evolve rapidly may be one of nature’s most precious commodities. ...

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VI.11 The Economics of Ecosystem Services

Charles Perrings

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pp. 652-658

Why does ecosystem change matter? Why should non-ecologists care about trends that alarm most ecologists? The answers to questions like these lie in the economics of the ecosystem change. For many ecologists, however, such a statement is itself part of the problem ...

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VI.12 Technological Substitution and Augmentation of Ecosystem Services

Indur M. Goklany

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pp. 659-669

This chapter briefly identifies some technologies that would augment or replace ecosystem services in order to reduce the direct human demand on nature. This identification is meant to be illustrative rather than comprehensive. ...

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VI.13 Conservation of Ecosystem Services

Jon Paul Rodríguez

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pp. 670-678

Ecosystem services have not been traditional targets of biodiversity conservation efforts. Researchers, practitioners, and policy makers have focused their attention on genes, populations, species, or ecosystems. ...

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Part VII Managing the Biosphere

Stephen R. Carpenter

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pp. 679-682

Human attempts to manage nature are at least as old as agriculture and possibly much older. By the time ecology was formalized as a science, applications and basic ecology were both on the agenda. ...

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VII.1 Biological Control: Theory and Practice

William Murdoch

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pp. 683-688

Biological control—defined here as the suppression of insect pests by other insects that attack them—has been pursued by entomologists for more than a century, in part because it is typically cheap and can yield very large economic returns on investment. ...

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VII.2 Fisheries Management

Ray Hilborn

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pp. 689-694

Fisheries constitute the most significant example of exploitation of natural ecosystems to produce protein for human consumption. Fisheries are an important part of ecology, both because of their importance for humans and because of the impact fisheries have on almost all oceans, lakes, and rivers. ...

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VII.3 Wildlife Management

Mark S. Boyce, Evelyn H. Merrill, Anthony R. E. Sinclair

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pp. 695-700

Wildlife populations occur within both protected areas and human-dominated ecosystems. In both cases, populations are monitored to ensure they coexist with other species in their habitats in a stable way or are harvested as a resource in a sustainable fashion. ...

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VII.4 Managing the Global Water System

Joseph Alcamo

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pp. 701-711

An important new insight is that water in its various forms operates as a system on scales much larger than a single lake, river basin, aquifer, or municipality. Although the global cycling of water through the earth’s physical system (ocean, atmosphere, terrestrial freshwater bodies) has long been recognized, ...

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VII.5 Managing Nutrient Mobilization and Eutrophication

D. W. Schindler

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pp. 712-717

Increasing the inputs of the nutrients phosphorus and nitrogen to freshwater bodies and estuaries causes increased growth of nuisance algae, termed eutrophication. In lakes, eutrophication can be prevented by controlling inputs of phosphorus. In estuaries, there is still controversy over whether nitrogen, phosphorus, or both must be controlled. ...

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VII.6 Managing Infectious Diseases

Jonathan A. Patz, Sarah H. Olson

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pp. 718-723

Changes in biodiversity and habitat change affect the transmission or emergence of a range of infectious diseases. These environmental factors include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal zone degradation, and other activities. ...

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VII.7 Agriculture, Land Use, and the Transformation of Planet Earth

Jonathan A. Foley, Chad Monfreda, Jonathan A. Patz, Navin Ramankutty

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pp. 724-730

It is fair to say that our planet’s most precious resource is land. Land is the source of the vast majority of our food and fresh water, nearly all of our fiber and raw materials, and many other important goods and services. It is also our home. But our relationship to the land has been dramatically changing over the history of our species, ...

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VII.8 The Ecology, Economics, and Management of Alien Invasive Species

Ryan Chisholm

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pp. 731-739

Biological invasions have been a feature of global ecology since the origin of life: plants and animals invaded the land from the sea, and chance dispersal events have occasionally allowed species to invade new continents, islands, or bodies of water. ...

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VII.9 Ecological Economics: Principles of Economic Policy Design for Ecosystem Management

Anastasios Xepapadeas

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pp. 740-747

Ecological economics studies the interactions and coevolution in time and space between ecosystems and human economies. The rate at which humans exploit or harvest ecosystems services exceeds what might be regarded as a desirable level from society’s point of view. ...

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VII.10 Governance and Institutions

Elinor Ostrom

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pp. 748-753

Governance is a multilevel process established by humans to craft institutions—rules—that affect who can do what in relation to specific aspects of a linked social–ecological system (SES), who will monitor conformance to these rules, and how these rules may be modified over time in light of feedback from the SES itself and from those involved in its use, management, and conservation. ...

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VII.11 Assessments: Linking Ecology to Policy

Clark A. Miller

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pp. 754-760

Finding ways to deliberate and communicate knowledge and ideas among ecologists, policy officials, and the public has not always proven easy or straightforward. In response to these challenges, governments have sought ways to systematize and rationalize the flow of ecological and other scientific knowledge into policy processes. ...

Milestones in Ecology

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pp. 761-774

Glossary

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pp. 775-792

Index

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pp. 793-810