Title Page, copyright

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xi

...and friends who helped me, directly and indirectly, write this book. Although this project was not based on my dissertation, it is in many ways the fruit of learning with my teachers at Princeton, particularly William Jordan. I am grateful as well to Anthony Grafton, Peter Brown...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-10

...Christians in the Middle Ages for several years, I noticed a recurring query posed by many students. How did Jewish communities continue to survive in Europe despite facing what seemed to be endless persecution, violence, and expulsion? A fundamental question to be sure, but one...

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CHAPTER ONE: From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages

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pp. 11-42

...non-Roman peoples into the territories of the empire to the end of the Carolingian hegemony in the ninth century is usually seen as a period of relative security and tolerance for Jews.1 By trying to explain the tolerance, scholars have emphasized how unusual it is and how it degraded into more “normal” persecutorial relations after the year 1000. This division...

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CHAPTER TWO: From the Carolingians to the Twelfth Century

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pp. 43-63

...Europe for hundreds of years and had survived scattered outbursts of Christian zeal. The domination of the Carolingians would not fundamentally disrupt the localized nature of the Jewish experience or the integration of Jews into European society. However, it would shape...

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CHAPTER THREE: Cultural Integration in the High Middle Ages

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pp. 64-74

...is to cross an invisible and arbitrary dividing line. The twelfth century—a period stretching from the middle of the eleventh to the middle of the thirteenth century—is usually considered the great age of expansion in theMiddle Ages. All areas of European life saw growth and movement. The most important of these included an aristocratic diaspora...

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CHAPTER FOUR: Social Integration

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pp. 75-88

...themselves make any generalizations about their lived experience very tenuous and artificial. How much a part of European society each Jew felt may have been based on personal factors or individual personality. Christian society was variegated, dynamic, and diverse...

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CHAPTER FIVE: Violence

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pp. 89-115

...Jewish experience in medieval Europe. The history of Jews on one level is the story of rising levels of anti-Jewish polemic, accusations of atrocities, physical attacks, and finally expulsion from much of western Europe as Christian toleration of Jews declined. It is not surprising...

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CHAPTER SIX: Expulsion and Continuity

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pp. 116-134

...Middle Ages, they were not able to escape the expulsions ordered by most European monarchs by the end of the fifteenth century. The expulsions have provided a convenient terminus to shape the narrative of the Jewish experience. They have served as the natural end to a story of persecution...

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Conclusion

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pp. 135-138

...unattainable, scholars seem to think that they know it when they see it. And scholars have definitely not seen it in northern European countries. We have grown used to understanding the medieval period in general as one of intolerance and persecution. Particularly where Jews are concerned, the period after 1096 is treated as one of intensifying persecution...

Notes

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pp. 139-166

Bibliography

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pp. 167-182

Index

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pp. 183-193