Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-v

CONTENTS

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pp. vii-viii

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PREFACE

Daniel A. Bell

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pp. ix-xiv

Over the past several years, the Ethikon Institute has organized a number of high-level dialogue conferences in which authoritative spokespersons for diverse ethical traditions have presented the views of their respective traditions on particular topics and specific questions...

PART ONE: STATE AND CIVIL SOCIETY

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CHAPTER ONE: Confucian Conceptions of Civil Society

Richard Madsen

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pp. 3-19

Classical Chinese intellectual traditions (which were not confined to China proper, but had enormous influence throughout East Asia, particularly in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam) did not even have words for civil society, much less a theory of it. In Chinese, for instance...

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CHAPTER TWO: Confucian Perspectives on Civil Society and Government

Peter Nosco

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pp. 20-45

Let me begin by explaining what I mean when I use the terms civil society and Confucianism, since both terms are used in widely varying ways. I regard civil society as inseparable from voluntary associations, but I view these voluntary associations somewhat more...

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CHAPTER THREE: Civil Society, Government, and Confucianism: A Commentary

Henry Rosemont, Jr.

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pp. 46-57

First, importantly, I believe Professor Nosco correctly reads the classical Confucian canon as describing the ultimate goal of human life as developing oneself most fully as a human being to become a junzi or, at the pinnacle of development, a sheng ren, or sage. And he is equally incisive...

PART TWO: BOUNDARIES AND JUSTICE

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CHAPTER FOUR: Territorial Boundaries and Confucianism

Joseph Chan

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pp. 61-84

Territory is a political concept. It does not simply refer to a geographical space, but to “the land or district lying around a city or town and under its jurisdiction,” as the Oxford English Dictionary defines it. The concept thus designates a relationship between a...

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CHAPTER FIVE: Boundaries of the Body and Body Politic in Early Confucian Thought

Michael Nylan

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pp. 85-110

Neither the concept nor the term “Confucianism” existed until Jesuit missionaries in China felt the need to invent a Chinese counterpart for Christianity in Europe. Summaries of early “Confucian” teachings on a given issue, then, necessarily overlook one...

PART THREE: ETHICAL PLURALISM

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CHAPTER SIX: Confucian Attitudes toward Ethical Pluralism

Joseph Chan

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pp. 113-138

As a tradition of thought, Confucianism began life in China more than 2,500 years ago. Although its core ideas can be traced back to the teachings of Confucius (551–479 B.C.E.), this tradition was never thought to be wholly created by Confucius himself. In fact, the...

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CHAPTER SEVEN: Two Strands of Confucianism

Lee H. Yearley

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pp. 139-143

Professor Chan’s essay is rich, clear, appropriately critical, and (when warranted) appropriately appreciative. I aim in what follows only to sketch out a few separable but related comments that may aid our understanding of his essay and the important issues he...

PART FOUR: CONTEMPORARY FEMINISM

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CHAPTER EIGHT: Gender and Relationship Roles in the Analects and the Mencius

Sin Yee Chan

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pp. 147-174

It is indisputable that traditional Confucianism endorsed patriarchy. However, the explicit subordination of women in Confucianism only started with the Han Confucian Dong Zhongshu (179?–104? C.E.). Dong aligned the female with the cosmic force of yin and the male with...

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CHAPTER NINE: The Confucian Concept of Ren and the Feminist Ethics of Care: A Comparative Study

Chenyang Li

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pp. 175-197

The purpose of this essay is to compare two philosophies that have seldom been brought together, Confucianism and feminism. Specifically, I will compare the concept of Ren, the central concept of Confucian ethics, and the concept of care, the central concept...

PART FIVE: WAR AND PEACE

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CHAPTER TEN: The Implications of Ancient Chinese Military Culture for World Peace

Ni Lexiong

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pp. 201-225

Military affairs refer to social activities that aim to secure or protect self-interest by means of organized armed force. Culture generally refers to two areas: the process of being civilized from a beastly state, and to the material and spiritual products of...

CHAPTER ELEVEN: Just War and Confucianism: Implications for the Contemporary World

Daniel A. Bell

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pp. 226-256

CONTRIBUTORS

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pp. 257-258

INDEX

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pp. 259-273