Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-xiv

...During the past twenty-five years, universities have become much more active in selling what they know and do to individuals and corporations. Commercialization of this kind is not new; it came into being many decades ago through the growth of intercollegiate athletics. As early as 1915, Yale earned more than $1 million from its...

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1 The Roots of Commercialization

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pp. 1-17

...Toward the end of the twentieth century, American universities— with their stately buildings, tree-lined quadrangles, and slightly disheveled, often-preoccupied professors— found themselves in an enviable position. No longer quiet enclaves removed from the busy world, they had emerged as the nation’s chief source for the three...

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2 Avoiding Bias

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pp. 18-34

...Commercialization is not a neutral word, let alone a term of approval, in most academic circles. Rarely, if ever, does one read that a university’s efforts to “commercialize” its educational programs or its research activities have met with applause from its students or enthusiasm...

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3 Athletics

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pp. 35-56

...On a sunny afternoon in 1852, two groups of oarsmen— one from Harvard, one from Yale—raced against each other on Lake Winnipesaukee. The students may not have known it, but they were participating in the first intercollegiate sports contest in the United States. Even then, although there were no paying spectators...

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4 Scientific Research

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pp. 57-78

...of the murder of a young woman in Africa and her husband’s valiant efforts to avenge her death. It soon appears that these events all grow out of a major pharmaceutical firm’s campaign to develop a new drug for combating tuberculosis. Discovered in a Polish laboratory, the drug looks very promising at first, raising...

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5 Education

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pp. 79-98

...In 1998, Meyer Feldberg, dean of the Columbia Business School, received a phone call from an old friend, Michael Milken, impresario of junk bonds, master of the leveraged buy-out, and active again after twenty-two months in a federal prison for securities law violations...

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6 The Benefits and Costs of Commercialization

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pp. 99-121

...Commercialization typically begins when someone in the university finds an opportunity to make money: an offer of generous research funding in exchange for exclusive patent licensing rights; a chance to sell distance courses for a profit; or a lucrative contract with an apparel manufacturer offering cash and free athletic...

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7 Reforming Athletics

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pp. 122-138

...In 1987, after thirty-six years of service as the executive director and principal architect of the modern NCAA, Walter Byers retired and began to write about his long career presiding over intercollegiate athletics. One might have thought that the resulting work would...

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8 Protecting the Integrity of Research

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pp. 139-156

...In the early years of the twentieth century, professors debated whether they or their universities could properly obtain a patent and assert ownership over discoveries made in campus laboratories. Many eminent scientists frowned on the idea. Jacques Loeb of the...

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9 Preserving Educational Values

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pp. 157-184

...In the turbulent world of public education, a battle is in progress over the role of private enterprise in reviving troubled urban schools. For-profit companies, such as the Edison Corporation, are bidding to take over individual schools or even entire city systems, claiming that they can raise test scores, instill a new spirit of...

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10 Living Up to the Rules

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pp. 185-198

...Setting clear guidelines is essential to protect academic values from excessive commercialization. But guidelines alone, however thoughtfully devised, will not be enough. Cases will inevitably arise in which the rules are ambiguous, the circumstances novel, or the deviations arguably minor. Enterprising aides will think...

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11 Seizing the Moment

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pp. 199-208

...Today, American universities face exceptional opportunities and exceptional risks. Their research is needed more than ever now that new discoveries and expert knowledge have become so essential to progress in health care, economic growth, and other endeavors that matter to the nation. As careers grow more complicated and subject...

Notes

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pp. 209-226

Index

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pp. 227-233