Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xiii

...I could not have imagined a finer intellectual and personal journey than the travels that gave rise to this book. I am indebted to the many people and institutions who made it possible. My first words of thanks must go to the researchers, activists, community members, and government officials who over the years helped me to understand the many complex and...

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Chapter 1: Introduction

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pp. 1-16

...advances in knowledge, proponents urged the scientific community to act swiftly. Social changes that facilitated the mixing of populations, they warned, threatened the identity of groups of greatest importance for understanding human evolutionary history—“isolated indigenous populations” (Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1991). To unravel the mysteries...

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Chapter 2: Post–World War II Expert Discourses on Race

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pp. 17-44

...whose decline they document, these accounts assume the existence of a stable and static entity whose rise and fall can be charted. Consequently, historians of race and science, and the critical race theorists whose work they inform, have generally overlooked transformations in the meaning and uses of race as a scientific category. This chapter begins to fill this surprising gap in ...

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Chapter 3: In the Legacy of Darwin

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pp. 45-73

...category of race in biology. Indeed, for many of its advocates, population genetics represented a source of new, more rigorous tools for studying race formation. In this chapter, I provide the historical context that renders visible the connections between population genetics, studies of race formation, and the Human Genome Diversity Project. At the time of its proposal, the ties between...

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Chapter 4: Diversity Meets Anthropology

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pp. 74-97

...consider questions about the meaning of race and its role in structuring their initiative, this would all begin to change as the first criticisms of the Project emerged just months after the call for the survey appeared in Genomics. At this time, Science magazine published a letter from Mark Weiss, then director of the Physical Anthropology...

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Chapter 5: Group Consent and the Informed, Volitional Subject

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pp. 98-125

...the spring and summer of 1993, a second wave of criticism rocked the Diversity Project. At this time, organizers began to hear from indigenous rights organizations and other advocates for indigenous groups. In May, the Rural Advancement Foundation International (RAFI), an activist organization committed to policy advocacy...

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Chapter 6: Discourses of Participation

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pp. 126-156

...their sampling initiative would end the “Eurocentric bias” of the Human Genome Project (Bowcock and Cavalli-Sforza 1991, Human Genome Organization 1993). To date, they observed, most studies of human genetic diversity had “been made on Caucasoid samples for obvious reasons of expediency” (Bowcock and Cavalli-Sforza 1991, 491). The Diversity Project would correct this bias by sampling indigenous populations around the world. Some geneticists...

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Chapter 7: Conclusion

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pp. 157-168

...Proponents of these new efforts have attempted to distinguish themselves fromDiversity Project organizers by arguing that their initiativeswill answer more profitable questions about human health, and either avoid, or adequately address, ethical problems. Yet, experience indicates that promises to overcome the problems raised by...

Appendix A: Methodological Appendix

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pp. 169-172

Appendix B: Code for Interviews

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pp. 173-174

Appendix C: Human Genome Diversity Project Time Line

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pp. 175-178

Notes

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pp. 179-210

Bibliography

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pp. 211-228

Index

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pp. 229-238