Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Foreward

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pp. vii-x

FEW SUBJECTS in the Muslim world in the late 1990s commanded the attention of analysts and policy makers as much as Islam's compatibility with democracy, and few countries aroused more interest than Indonesia. Revolutionary developments engulfed the world's largest "Muslim" state, from the popular unrest that led to the overthrow of President Soeharto after thirty-two years in power to the holding of the first relatively free, multiparty elections since the 1950s...

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Preface

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pp. xi-xx

WHEN I BEGAN research on Islam and democratization in Indonesiaa decade ago, friends expressed surprise at my interest. Although Ihad published on Indonesian religion, political economy, and na-tion making since the late 1970s, most of my research had been of a familiaranthropological sort, focused on the life-worlds and history of ordinary Indo-nesians, especially on the island of Java. Indonesian friends were curious aboutwhat an anthropologist might have to say about so unparochial a topic as Islam...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxi-xxii

A LONG PROJECT like the one that made this book possible incurs great debts. My research trips to Indonesia during 1991–98 were supported by several foundations. I must thank, first of all, Karen Colvard of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation for funding during 1993–95 to carry out a first wave of interviews and analysis on Muslim discussions of violence and democracy. Without the foundation's inspired commitment to the comparative study of the causes of and cures for social violence, this project would have never been possible...

List of Abbreviations

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pp. xxiii-2

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1. Democratization in an Age of Religious Revitalization

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pp. 3-20

GLOBAL POLITICS at the turn of the millennium has been marked by two far-reaching events. The first has been the diffusion of democratic ideas to disparate peoples and cultures around the world. A skeptic might point out that politics varies greatly among societies and movements waving the democratic banner, and political civility is not guaranteed by good words alone. Nonetheless, as with the earlier notion of nationalism (equally varied in its ideals and practice), there can be little doubt that the cross-cultural diffusion of democratic ideas is one of the defining globalizations of our age...

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2. Civil Precedence

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pp. 21-36

A key theme in modern social theory has been that the traditions a society inherits from the past shape its ability to respond to the present, often in ways actors themselves do not fully understand. Dutifully engaged in business in an effort to confirm he is among God's elect, the Calvinist entrepreneur who helps create modern capitalism in Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism1 provides the prototype for this sort of analysis...

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3. Contests of Nation

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pp. 37-57

NO IDEA HAS HAD so profound an influence on the refiguration of Muslim politics in modern Indonesia as has nationalism. In the first decades of this century Muslim leaders shifted their sights away from earlier dreams of resurrecting a pan-Islamic polity toward the goal of a multiethnic nation coincident with the territorial borders of the Dutch East Indies.1 Still today, almost a century later, the great majority of Indonesian Muslims are not only resigned to the idea of the Indonesian nation but are among its most ardent promoters...

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4. Ambivalent Alliances: Religion and Politics in the Early New Order

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pp. 58-93

ALTHOUGH SOME details remain a mystery, the course of events that began with the attempted leftist officers' coup of September 30, 1965, and culminated in the installation of Soeharto's New Order regime in mid-1966 is now more or less clear. The events of 1965–66 marked the end of one chapter in modern Indonesian history and the beginning of another. By the time the transition was complete, everything in the nation's politics had changed...

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5. The Modernist Travail

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pp. 94-127

THE NEW ORDER regime presented modernist Muslims with challenges even more daunting than those faced by Nahdlatul Ulama's traditionalists. The final years of the Soekarno era had not looked kindly on believers in the compatibility of Islam and modern civilization. From 1956 on, the modernists' primary political organization, the Masyumi, was excluded from governing coalitions. In the late 1950s Masyumi leaders were the subject of Communist Party campaigns portraying them as stooges...

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6. Islam Deferred: Regimist Islam and the Struggle for the Middle Class

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pp. 128-166

When, on December 6, 1990, President Soeharto beat a large mosque drum (bedug) to open the first national conference of the Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals, he shattered in one fell swoop one of the most enduring stereotypes of New Order politics. Here, after all, was a man long regarded as a staunch defender of Javanist mysticism and Pancasila pluralism giving his blessing to an elite Muslim organization openly dedicated to the Islamization of Indonesian society...

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7. Uncivil State: Muslims and Violence in Soeharto's Fall

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pp. 167-213

THE CRACKDOWN on the press in June 1994 marked the end of Soeharto's experiment with limited liberalization and the beginning of a dangerous new policy on Islam. The timing of the two policy shifts was not accidental. The new policy on Islam was based on the idea that the president could best neutralize the growing prodemocracy movement by mobilizing conservative Muslims to his side. The "turn to Islam," begun in the late 1980s, had thus entered a new and final phase...

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8. Conclusion: Muslim Politics, Global Modernity

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pp. 214-222

IN AN ARTICLE a few years ago the Turkish sociologist Serif Mardin offered a wryly inconclusive answer to the question of whether the ideals of democracy and civil society are generalizable to the Muslim world. "Civil society is a Western dream, a historical aspiration," he first avers. The dream is premised on values that reach back to Greek times, entailing notions of moral autonomy and individual self-creation. Given its cultural genealogy, Mardin implies, the ideal of civil society will be of limited interest...

Notes

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pp. 223-270

Index

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pp. 271-286