Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Figures

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pp. ix-x

Tables

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pp. xi-xii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-2

This book began when I was a graduate student at Yale University, and I owe a great debt to many people there. David Mayhew went above and beyond a dissertation adviser’s call of duty in sharing his many insights into Congress with me and in spending numerous hours commenting on chapter drafts, suggesting sources, and discussing the project. I have also learned much from Donald Green and Stephen Skowronek, each of whom served on my dissertation committee and provided advice and support at every stage of the project...

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1. Disjointed Pluralism and Institutional Change

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pp. 3-26

WHATEVER ELSE a national legislature may be, it is a complex of rules, procedures, and specialized internal institutions, such as committees and leadership instruments. Particular configurations of these rules, procedures, committees, and leadership instruments may serve the interests of individual members, parties, pressure groups, sectors of society, or the legislature as a whole...

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2. Institutional Development, 1890–1910: An Experiment in Party Government

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pp. 27-84

SCHOLARS have repeatedly described 1890–1910 as the high-water mark for party government in the United States (Brady and Althoff 1974; Mayhew 1974, 175; Rohde 1991, 4–5). Unusually strong party cohesion, particularly among Republicans, coincided with intense interparty conflict for most of these two decades. Political commentators of that time could credibly speculate that congressional politics would become more and more like the strong party regimes of England and other parliamentary systems (Follett 1896)...

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3. Institutional Development, 1919–1932: Cross-Party Coalitions, Bloc Government, and Republican Rule

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pp. 85-135

THE INSURGENT Republican rebellion of 1910 presaged some of the difficulties that GOP leaders would face in the 1919–32 period. In 1919, Republicans regained control of both houses of Congress for the first time since the revolt against Cannon but still faced a substantial faction of midwestern and western progressives who disagreed with important elements of the party’s agenda...

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4. Institutional Development, 1937–1952: The Conservative Coalition, Congress against the Executive, and Committee Government

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pp. 136-188

THE DIFFICULTIES confronting Democratic leaders in 1937–52 easily surpassed Republicans’ earlier troubles with progressive insurgency. In January 1937, the liberal coalition led by Franklin Roosevelt, fresh from a sweeping election victory, appeared in firm control of the Congress and the country. Yet by the end of the year, the Democrats were in disarray and conservatism was on the rise in Congress and nationally...

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5. Institutional Development, 1970–1989: A Return to Party Government or the Triumph of Individualism?

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pp. 189-248

THE 1970–89 PERIOD began with the conservative coalition still a potent force in congressional politics. Nixon’s recent election had generated considerable speculation that conservative Democrats and their Republican allies would speedily recover from the policy setbacks they had suffered at the hands of Lyndon Johnson in the mid-1960s. Even more ominous for liberals, majority party Democrats suffered from weak and aging leadership...

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6. Understanding Congressional Change

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pp. 249-269

THE PRECEDING four chapters demonstrate that disjointed pluralism has characterized congressional development. In this concluding chapter, I sum up the major patterns that emerge over time and consider the evidence concerning the four claims outlined in chapter 1. I then assess how well alternative theories fare in grappling with this evidence and discuss the relationship of these theories to disjointed pluralism...

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Epilogue. Institutional Change in the 1990s

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pp. 270-276

NO ACCOUNT of congressional institutions would be complete without addressing the major changes wrought by the Republican takeover of Congress in 1995. This epilogue briefly discusses the Democratic difficulties preceding the 1994 elections and the implications of the resulting Republican “revolution.”1 When Bill Clinton took office in 1993, Democrats had good reason for optimism: for the first time in twelve years, the party controlled both the White House and Congress...

Appendix A. Case Selection

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pp. 277-280

Appendix B. Votes Pertaining to Institutional Changes in Each Period

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pp. 281-294

Notes

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pp. 295-328

References

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pp. 329-348

Index

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pp. 349-360