Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Tables and Map

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiv

In December 1975 I abruptly found myself with time on my hands: the Lebanese civil war had interrupted my studies at the American University of Beirut. And so I visited Egypt, as a tourist, for the first time. The throbbing vitality of Cairo as a city, the rich texture of the country’s history, the warmth and humor of the people, all intrigued me. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 3-22

In the Middle East in particular, colonies often existed before colonialism. The political and economic dominance of one country by another during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in the absence of any conventional colonial state, has come to be called “informal empire.” ...

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One: Material and Cultural Foundations of the Old Regime

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pp. 23-52

In seeking to understand the dissident and subaltern political currents that emerged in the late 1870s and during the Egyptian revolution of 1881–82, we must begin by considering what they were dissenting from. What were the sources of power and the ideologies of the elite strata constituting the Old Regime of viceregal rule from 1805 to 1881? ...

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Two: Economic Change and Social Interests

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pp. 53-83

The three great forces that hammered Egypt in the third quarter of the nineteenth century—capitalism, population growth, and the state—collaborated in greatly increasing the gross national product and in radically changing the way it was distributed and controlled. The saga of the cotton boom in particular, followed by a bust and the world’s first modern debt crisis, ...

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Three: Body and Bureaucracy

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pp. 84-109

During the 1840s and 1850s, the great bureaucratic and military machine built by Muhammad ‘Ali, partially on the basis of income from cash crops, had gradually wound down. Late in Sa‘id’s reign, not only was the army and civil bureaucracy reduced to a shadow of itself, but even the police force suffered large reductions in force. ...

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Four: The Long Revolution in Egypt

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pp. 110-132

In the early 1850S, Egypt possessed only an elementary communications and transportation infrastructure, and the state had ceased promoting literacy. It is hard to imagine in such a situation how the people could have waged a truly national revolt or revolution, as opposed to tribal or urban factions engaging in scattered and uncoordinated clashes with the small army and police force. ...

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Five: Political Clubs and the Ideology of Dissent

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pp. 133-163

We have already seen how a new and growing stratum of intelligentsia was formed in the 1860s and 1870s, and how increased literacy and the greater impact of print media bolstered their social importance. Those intellectuals involved in political clubs and organizations who also attempted through their writings and speeches to reformulate the bases of Egyptian society and culture fell into two broad groups. ...

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Six: Guild Organization and Popular Ideology

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pp. 164-189

Two decisive political crises that evoked widespread popular participation helped shape politics in nineteenth-century Egypt: the struggle for control among Ottoman officers and Mamluk remnants in the wake of the Ottoman reconquest of Egypt from the French in 1801–05, and the ‘Urabi revolt of 1881–82, ...

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Seven: Of Crowds and Empires: Euro-Egyptian Conflict

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pp. 190-212

Having discussed the role of the guilds during the 1870s, let us now turn to some of the more informal vehicles for collective action in urban areas. The 12 percent of Egyptians who lived in large towns and cities structured their society in many ways. Informally, they gathered as a crowd on certain occasions. ...

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Eight: Repression and Censorship

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pp. 213-233

The modern autocratic state’s ability to repress dissent and control forms of public discourse constitutes an important deterrent to successful political mobilization. Despotic regimes with little or no legitimacy can survive for decades, providing the public fears their control over armed force or their ability to call on a patron state to provide that force. ...

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Nine: Social and Cultural Origins of the Revolution

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pp. 234-272

Revolutions, as a form of turbulence, entail an untidy conjuncture of several types of collective action, carried on in an often uncoordinated manner by different social groups. Western historians of the revolution of 1881–82 have tended to focus on officers and high officials, relegating to relative insignificance other social actors. ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 273-290

This book has focused mainly on structure, organization, and ideology so far, in analyzing the manner in which segments of a troika of social strata formed a vague alliance against Egypt’s dual elite of Ottoman-Egyptians and Europeans. ...

Notes

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pp. 291-320

Select Bibliography

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pp. 321-334

Index

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pp. 335-341